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Alin Albai, Mirela Frandeș, Ramona Luminița Sandu, Gabriel Spoială, Flavia Hristodorescu, Bogdan Timar and Romulus Timar

, Fitzgerald AP et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 24: 987-1003, 2003. 6. D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 117: 743-753, 2008. 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for

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Matjaz Vrtovec, Ajda Anzic, Irena Preloznik Zupan, Katja Zaletel and Ales Blinc

significant number of patients with ET had a high calcium score not predicted by the Framingham risk equation for coronary disease ( Table 6 , Figure 2 ). While a significant correlation between the Framingham CHD risk and the Agatston was found for control subjects (r = 0.577, p < 0.001), no significant correlation was found fort the patients with ET (r = 0.197, p =0.223). Figure 2 Correlation of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and coronary calcification (Agatston score). While a significant Pearson correlation between the Framingham CHD risk and

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Vaia D. Raikou

coronary heart disease is the Framingham risk score (FRS). According to the National Institutes of Health, the patients having chronic kidney disease are considered as having a coronary heart disease risk equivalent, meaning that they are primarily patients with a 10-year risk for myocardial infarction or coronary death >20%, despite without known coronary heart disease. [ 8 ] Metabolic acidosis, a common condition and an important manifestation of the late stage of chronic kidney disease, leads to clinically significant consequences, including bone disease disorders

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Sakunee Khankham, Leena Chularojanamontri, Chanisada Wongpraparut, Narumol Silpa-archa, Nuttaporn Janyong and Prin Vathesatogkit

Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become an important cause of death and comorbid disease among the general population. Several assessment tools have been developed to predict the 10-year risk of developing CAD and coronary death. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed in 1998, is probably the most well-known [ 1 ]. The FRS is validated in the U.S. population and performs well when applied to other populations with a similarly high background risk of CAD. However, application of the FRS overestimated the risk of CAD in cohorts in Europe, Asia, and

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Carasca Cosmin, Muresan Vasile Adrian, Tilea Ioan, Magdas Annamaria, Carasca Emilian and Incze Alexandru

References 1. Murabito JM, D’Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, Wilson PWF. Intermittent Claudication - A Risk Profile From The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 1997;96:44-49. 2. Khan S, Flather M, Mister R et al. Characteristics and Treatments of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Referred to UK Vascular Clinics: Results of a Prospective Registry. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2007;33:4:442–450. 3. Bainton D, Sweetnam P, Baker I, Elwood P. Peripheral vascular disease: consequence for survival and association with

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Dragan Vasiljevic, Aleksandra Tomic-Lucic, Sandra Zivanovic, Mirjana Milosavljevic, Snezana Radovanovic, Nebojsa Andjelkovic, Dragan Djuric and Mirjana Veselinovic

- rheumatoid factor VAS - visual analogue score REFERENCES 1. Peters MJ, Symmons DP, McCarey D, Dijkmans BA, Nicola P et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010; 69(2): 312-325. 2. Martin-Martinez MA, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Castaneda S, Llorca J, et al. Recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: scientific evidence and expert opinion. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014; 44(1): 1

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Ivo S. Petrov, Arman Sh. Postadzhiyan, Mariya P. Tokmakova, Lyudmila G. Kitova, Svetlin N. Tsonev, Janet Addison, Reneta T. Petkova and Vasil I. Lachev

, De Backer G, et al. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J 2011;32:1769-1818. 9. Conroy R, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP, et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003;24:987-1003. 10. D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study

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Tamara Nikolic, Ivan Srejovic, Isidora Stojic, Jovana Jeremic, Marko Folic, Stevan Matic, Milena Rakocevic, Snezana Jancic, Biljana Jakovljevic, Radmila Obrenovic, Dusan Djuric and Vladimir Zivkovic

;47:407–409. 5. Castelli WP. Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coronary artery disease-the Framingham Heart study. Can J Cardiol. 1988;4:5–10 6. Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor to cardio vascular disease independent of high density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta analysis of population based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:213–219. 7. Guerin M, Legoff W, Lassel TS, VanTol A, Steiner G, Chapman MJ. Proatherogenic role of elevated CE transfer from HDL to VLDL and dense LDL in type 2 diabetics. Arterioscler

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Davorina Petek, Marija Petek-Ster and Ksenija Tusek-Bunc

some studies ( 12 ). In our survey, patients with a high risk for CVD were defined by the criteria of the Framingham score system, which provides scores from 0->40, the high-risk group having ≥20 % of absolute risk for a cardiovascular event in the next 10 years due to modifiable risk factors (the level of systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting blood glucose level, smoking) and non-modifiable risk factors – gender and age of the patient ( 13 ). In these patients, risklowering strategies include lifestyle advice and treatment of risk diseases. In our study

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Davorina Petek and Janko Kersnik

cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Heart 2006; 92: 1752-1759. 4. Eichler K, Puhan MA, Steurer J, Bachmann LM. Prediction of first coronary events with the Framingham score: a systematic review. Am Heart J 2007; 153: 722-731. 5. Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, Boysen G, Burell G, Cifkova R, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur J