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Sakunee Khankham, Leena Chularojanamontri, Chanisada Wongpraparut, Narumol Silpa-archa, Nuttaporn Janyong and Prin Vathesatogkit

Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become an important cause of death and comorbid disease among the general population. Several assessment tools have been developed to predict the 10-year risk of developing CAD and coronary death. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed in 1998, is probably the most well-known [ 1 ]. The FRS is validated in the U.S. population and performs well when applied to other populations with a similarly high background risk of CAD. However, application of the FRS overestimated the risk of CAD in cohorts in Europe, Asia, and

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Qian-Qian He and Jun-Feng Zhang

Examination Survey showed that knee OA was negatively correlated with the risk of smoking. 26 At the same time, the Framingham population-based prospective study also concluded that smokers had a significantly lower risk of incident radiographic knee OA. 27 Furthermore, smoking as a depressant in OA incidence was only observed in active smokers and not in passive smokers or in active and passive smokers. Therefore, this study explored the occurrence of OA in several different statuses of smoking. Of course, there are a couple of limitations, such as the diagnostic

Open access

The sex-specific estimation of 10-year cardiovascular risk in individuals without cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has commonly used the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed from a large, population-based prospective cohort in the US representing mainly the white population of European ancestry [ 1 , 2 ]. Other multivariate risk models, including a risk calculator released by the Joint British Societies (JBS) in 2014 [ 3 ], and later versions of Framingham risk model have been developed to predict coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease

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Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Abel Romero-Corral, Virend K. Somers, Justo Sierra-Johnson, Keith D. Lindor, Paul Angulo and Francisco Lopez-Jimenez

References 1. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology. 2007; 45:846-54. 2. Church TS, Kuk JL, Ross R, Priest EL, Biltoft E, Blair SN. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 2023-30. 3. Park SH, Kim BI, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Park DI, Cho YK, et al. Body fat

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Muhammed Sait Toprak, Zeynep Gungor Ozturk, Ozlem Balci Ekmekci, Hakan Ekmekci, Baris Ikitimur, Bilgehan Karadag, Huseyin Altug Cakmak, Baris Ilerigelen and Huseyin Sonmez

intercellular adhesion molecule 1 are related in healthy subjects, and pointed out the risk of coronary heart disease [ 34 ]. Yeboah et al. showed that brachial FMD is a predictor of incident CV events in population-based adults, and that it improved the classification of individuals as low, intermediate, and high CVD risk compared with the Framingham Risk Score [ 35 ]. The contributions of biochemical endothelial markers to endothelium derived dilatation are difficult to define because their importance may vary lots of confounders. Determining endothelial function by