.5 osteopenia, T-score ≤ -2.5 osteoporosis).
In untreated, older post-menopausal women, when the BMD is lower, the fracture risk is greater.
In general, fracture risk approximately doubles for each −1 decrease in T-score. The Z-score of < -2 represents BMD below the expected age range while for z > −2 BMD is within the expected age range.
Statistical analysis was performed using MATLAB R2017b (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA) program. DXA BMD measurements and characteristic frequencies were compared between all patients subgroups (osteopenic