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The fact that the investment cost approaches infinity stems from barriers to free movement of workers between areas of economic integration due to legal restrictions like visas or quotas ( Kahanec, 2013 ), lack of portability of social rights ( Holzmann and Koettl, 2015 ; d’Addio and Cavalleri, 2015), differences in occupational regulation and difficulties for qualification recognition ( Sweetman et al., 2015 ); but also from cultural gaps and asymmetric information problems with respect to foreign labour markets ( Sprenger, 2013 ).
provide the right conditions for developing such interactions. Tomsk and Novosibirsk are the only university cities in Russia behind the Urals that were included in the 2018 QS Best Student Cities Ranking. The cities strive for high positions in world rankings but face certain difficulties in entering into cooperation with local authorities and business and, therefore, are looking for foreign success stories they can emulate. Additionally, these university towns are provincial ones, but their universities have good reputations and strive for worldwide competitiveness
positively to economic growth, through multiplier effects on aggregate demand. But government consumption may crowd out private investment, dampen economic stimulus in the short run and reduce capital accumulation in the long run ( Coady and Fan, 2008 ). Economy theory of public expenditures is classified into two: productive if they are included as arguments in private production functions, and unproductive if they are not ( Barro and Sala-I-Martin, 1992 ). This categorisation implies that productive expenditures have a direct effect upon the rate of economic growth
that India was an important growth market for Amsterdam, Amsterdam Economic Affairs established a special India Desk at Amsterdam inbusiness, the official foreigninvestment agency for the city of Amsterdam. The India-directed policies executed by Amsterdam inbusiness also included quality-of-life activities. In order to be attractive as an immigration country, it was reasoned, Indian expats needed to feel welcome and at home.
One of the key findings in the aforementioned WODC report is that more international schools would make the Netherlands more appealing to