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crucial role to play, for example, as a promoter of the development of peripheral and marginal regions, and those lagging most in terms of wealth; as well as in regard to regions at the other end of the scale which can serve as poles of growth or form central areas of strengthening economic potential. The instrumentation states may draw on is varied, ranging from regional policy through to direct economic investment, via investment in technical infrastructure and human capital.
Beyond the internal factors, it is those of an external nature that are exerting an ever
developed areas, as well as new investments (e.g. foreigndirectinvestments) due to a massive concentration of possibilities for competition and cooperation, as well as access to workforce and knowledge. This process is to some extent countered by policies designed to attract capital in weaker regions, and by regional policies in individual states that create preferential conditions in less developed regions and municipalities. For those reasons the scale and dynamics of regional differences in entrepreneurial activity presents itself as a problem in the context of
This paper has as its goals the presentation and evaluation of the changes in Poland’s industry during the economic transformation. After having listed the main characteristics of the industry in the period before 1989, the author points out the changing role of the industry in the national economy as well as changes in ownership and quantity. An evaluation of the changes in employment in industry, the value and structure of fixed assets, capital expenditures (incl. the role of direct foreign investments) as well as of the dynamics and structure of the industrial production has been made. Processes of restructuring of indusstry and spatial changes in the industry deployment are another topic discussed in the paper.
12/31/13. Available from: < http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/ABEA-40FHZ9/3582468975x0x745423/0FBC91FC-DA35-429E-BCD7-62B82093F083/Huazhu_2013_Annual_Report.pdf >. [10.10.2014].
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assets purchased by companies during this period were new assets. The most dynamically growing expenditures where those financed by budgetary resources – grants from local governments and central government (increase of 190%) and by foreign funds (60%). This was probably related to the launching of investment EU aid programs aimed at enterprises in the post-accession period ( Czerwonka, Jaworski 2014 ).
The empirical investigation presented in the article has been conducted as part of the research project “East-German and Polish Cities in the
viewed as most typical by the surveyed group, as well as places that have been ignored in their notion of the city. This may in turn become a premise for further work on the city space, e.g. with regard to place branding or investment attractiveness, or for research on the applicability of geographical education concerning the sense of direction in space, and information on the neighbourhood
This work presents the methodology used for the research, the results of interviews and sketched mental maps. The summary discusses the research results and the conclusions drawn
instability which handicaps foreigninvestments, the difficulties to set up the necessary infrastructure, significant health threats, insecurity of visitors who are attacked in a few areas, especially in the South where ransacking rebels are rampant) and the lack of a solid development plan of tourism strategy, mean that tourist traffic has remained small. Tourist numbers fluctuate significantly, especially at times of political turbulence ( Fig. 1 ). Over all, it is growing, but remains modest considering the size of the country and its population. This is partly the
The phenomenon of ‘beautifying’ and ‘refining’ public spaces in cities (including recreational spaces) has become more and more common in recent years. This is mainly related to investments in architectural tissue and elements of small architecture, the arrangement of urban greenery and the introduction of public art. The background for these activities is formed by the social, economic and cultural changes taking place in the globalizing world. Direct interpersonal contact, along with the exchange of ideas and values, are undoubtedly important