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have carried through directly from previous models and others have evolved or been reshaped. The central message however, as reflected in the book’s title, is that all six are now strongly underpinned by an ‘Outside-In’ ethos. HRM has moved through three waves from ‘Administrative Excellence’ to ‘Innovative and Integrated Practice’ to the more contemporary view of ‘Strategic HRM’ whereby direct contribution to organisational performance is achieved through developing business acumen, enabling business strategy and aligning HRM activities with the resulting strategic
Jiaju Yang, Tahir M Nisar and Guru Prakash Prabhakar
( Qiao et al., 2001 ). Therefore, a new financing model with private investment was introduced in the 1980s named build–operate–transfer (BOT). In this model, private sector’s project involvement is limited to building, operating and transferring a publicly funded project ( McCarthy and Tiong, 1991 ). Since the first BOT project Shajiao B power plant was executed in the city of Shenzhen, BOT model has gradually become one of the most important financing approaches to relieving the government’s financial burden and it has exerted a profound influence on the
have attracted the attention of CSR practitioners and scholars. These include studies that suggest that CSR activities provide an insurancelike protection when negative events occur ( Godfrey et al., 2009 ); that CSR activities influence not only the growth of sales, but also employment ( Carmeli, 2005 ) and investment ( Sen et al., 2006 ); and that firms with higher CSR ratings may have a sustainable competitive advantage in terms of human capital because they attract more and better potential employees than firms with lower CSR ratings ( Hunt et al., 1989 ; Turban
environment influences adaptations. The Irish chambers are voluntary, private law bodies that receive no direct state support; if something goes wrong, they suffer losses and risk insolvency. This is a strong contrast to public law chamber systems such as those in France and Germany which, although legally obliged to balance budgets, are underpinned by the state and effectively pass risk to the tax payer. This difference will be particularly significant in a crisis.
Comparisons of private and public law systems of trade associations ( van Waarden, 1991 ) and chambers
Brendan McSweeney, Donna Brown and Stravroula Iliopoulou
trade unions in Ireland was reduced through mergers from 86 to 42 ( Teague and Donaghey, 2009 ). the roles of formal and informal arbitration organizations; the extent and degree of implementation of employees’ legal protections; the introduction of a statutory national ‘minimum wage’ in 2000; institutional influences, including those shaped by the European Commission and associated organizations; the scale and type of foreigndirectinvestment; the comparatively low levels of trade union membership in multinational companies located in Ireland; the high membership
whistle-blower regulations as something that would help attract inward foreigndirectinvestment, by showing Ireland as competing on a comparable world stage as other advanced economies. In general terms, the content of the Act generally accords with such initial claims for more definitive rights, which may not be too surprising given the level of public concern (even outrage) over various headline whistle-blowing cases in Ireland. In short, there was an almost uniform level of political support to enact regulations.
Distributive justice and whistle
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