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Hans Kramar

urban centres and make them more attractive for foreign investors. As shown in Table 1 spatial concentration of foreign direct investment (FDI) predominantly appears in the economically lagging countries. Although in Germany and Italy FDI significantly concentrates on the higher developed (Western respectively Northern) parts of the countries, a reasonable number of provinces profit from foreign investment, whereas in Spain the two dominating cities of Madrid and Barcelona account for more than 80 % of all FDI. Table 1 Concentration of Foreign direct

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Jonathan V. Beaverstock

embeddedness of foreign direct investment in former West Germany and recent trends in intra-migration flows of labour from ‘East’ to ‘West’; however, these intra-national trends must trigger concerns for policy-makers at all scales of German governance. At a theoretical or conceptual level, the compilation of papers does little to advance the understanding of world city networks in the urban system because the overriding emphasis is on measuring structure at the expense of agency. This conclusion does not come as a surprise, given that the methodological focus of almost

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Iwona Sagan and Grzegorz Masik

the region is especially worth noting. Improvement of living environments can stimulate regional economic development. Applying green solutions (understood as innovative technologies to tackle climate change and new industries to drive long-term economic growth) positively influences the standard of living and draws foreign capital from those interested in high-technology sector investments. The Pomorskie Region is ranked as the region with the best living conditions in Poland (see Kalinowski 2006 ). The green attractiveness of the region plays a key role in

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Jan van der Meer and Erik Braun

autochthonous Dutch people migrate to other cities and that people belonging to ethnic minorities (both non-native Dutch and foreign people) continue to settle in the largest cities. In Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague (together 1.8 million inhabitants) one in every three citizens belongs to a non-Western ethnic minority group. In some neighbourhoods within these cities around 80 per cent of the inhabitants are of non-Western origin against less then 5 per cent in other neighbourhoods. This population composition and its consequences for the development of the cities

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Mohamed Hilal, Sophie Legras and Jean Cavailhès

Geography 9 1 85 115 Coughlin, C.C.; Terza, J.V.; Arromdee, V. (1991): State characteristics and the location of foreign direct investment within the United States. In: The Review of Economics and Statistics 73, 4, 675683. Coughlin C.C.; Terza, J.V.; Arromdee, V. 1991 State characteristics and the location of foreign direct investment within the United States The Review of Economics and Statistics 73 4 675683 Crane, R.; Chatman, D.G. (2002): Traffic and sprawl: evidence from U.S. commuting, 1985 to 1997. Los Angeles. Crane R. Chatman D

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Uwe Altrock

.; Güntner, S.; Hüning, S.; Peters, D. (Hrsg.): Zwischen Anpassung und Neuerfindung. Raumplanung und Stadtentwicklung in den Staaten der EU-Osterweiterung. Berlin, S. 9–23. Altrock U. Güntner S. Hüning S. Peters D. 2005b Zwischen Anpassung und Neuerfindung - Raumplanung und Stadtentwicklung in den Staaten der EU-Osterweiterung Altrock U. Güntner S. Hüning S. Peters D. Zwischen Anpassung und Neuerfindung. Raumplanung und Stadtentwicklung in den Staaten der EU-Osterweiterung Berlin S.9 23 Barta, G. (2005): The Role of Foreign Direct Investment in the Spatial Restructuring

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Thomas Bürk, Manfred Kühn and Hanna Sommer

individual self and may lead to an identity crisis. Identity Strategies in Dealing with Stigmatisation Ways of dealing with stigmatisation are directed first towards protecting the individual self. Identity strategies on the cognitive level can be utilised so that perceptions of unpleasant information are selective, skewed or suppressed (cognitive dissonance). In this way a change of the social self is avoided despite the ascription of negative characteristics. On the level of action, identity strategies can be used by correcting the negative image, by questioning

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Keith Shaw and Mark Tewdwr-Jones

Valley, and Hull and the Humber ( Cabinet Office 2013 ). The flexible nature of the process saw ministers offering a selection of different devolved responsibilities from which the cities could choose (see HM Government 2011 : 8 f.): Giving cities one single capital pot (rather than multiple funding streams), allowing them the freedom to direct and prioritise economic investment. Access to an additional £1 bn Regional Growth Fund (RGF) to support innovative and ambitious economic programmes. Powers for cities to offer business rate discounts to local

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Thilo Lang

adjust. Simmie and Martin (2010) tested their model of economic resilience using economic development data in two British case studies (Cambridge and Swansea travel to work areas), reviewing how they came out of the recessions of the early 1980s and early 1990s. They suggest that endogenous sources of new knowledge and market related entrepreneurial decisions combined with supportive institutional environments could be key factors for economic resilience. Further, they see a reliance on external factors (such as foreign direct investment) as a short term solution

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Stefan Lüthi, Alain Thierstein and Michael Bentlage

development of Eastern Europe—many firms may re-locate their offices from Vienna to other Eastern European cities such as Budapest, Prague or Warsaw. 7.2 The Functional Urban Hierarchy at the National Scale Within Europe, Germany is by far the biggest economy in global terms: it is the third largest manufacturing producer, the third largest commercial services exporter, and the third most important source of foreign direct investment ( Dicken 2007 : 42). However—as Dicken (2007 : 42) indicates—for a long period of time, Germany’s GDP growth has been below the world