M. Meddouri, L. Hammiche, O. Slimi, D. Djouadi and A. Chelouche
spontaneously to room temperature. The obtained powders were characterized without any chemical or heating treatments.
The crystalline structure of the as-prepared aerogels was studied using a PANalytical diffractometer where the X-rays are produced from a radiation source CuKα (λ= 1.54 Å), with an acceleration voltage of 40 kV and a current of 30 mA. Infrared spectra (FT-IR) were recorded with a Shimadzu’s IRAffinity-1 spectrometer by KBr pellet technique. SEM images were obtained with a JSM-840A JEOL microscope type. UV spectra were recorded at room temperature with a
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
K. Anand, B. Ramamurthy, V. Veeraiah and K. Vijaya Babu
addition [ 12 – 15 ].
This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of LiNi 1–x Mg x PO 4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) obtained by solid state reaction method. The materials were characterized for phase purity and cation environment by X-ray diffraction. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to study the local order. Electrical properties were studied by impedance spectroscopy. The structural and conductivity studies of the substituted phases were discussed in comparison with LiNiPO 4 .
The cathode compositions
Zohra Nazir Kayani, Mahek Zaheen Butt, Saira Riaz and Shahzad Naseem
NiO nanoparticles were fabricated by sol-gel route using ammonium hydroxide and nickel nitrate as precursors. The NiO nanoparticles were calcinated at 400 °C and 1000 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The structural properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD confirmed the formation of well-crystallized and high purity NiO phase. The XRD showed that the peaks were sharpened and the crystallite size increased as the calcination temperature increased. The average crystallite size ranged from 12 nm to 20 nm, when calcined at temperatures 400 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the chemical composition and confirmed the formation of NiO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles showed paramagnetic behavior.
Pure and L-lysine added ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystals were grown in the 〈001〉 direction by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (S-R) method. The grown crystals were characterized by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Vicker’s Microhardness analysis.
XRD spectrum of each of the grown crystals proved its crystallinity. The crystals showed good transparency in the entire visible region. FT-IR spectra of the specimens revealed the presence of functional groups in them. The hardness of the pure and L-lysine added ADP crystals were measured and that of the added one was found higher. Meanwhile, it was found that the ADP crystals (pure and L-lysine added) grown by S-R method had higher hardness compared to ADP crystal grown by conventional method.
SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn) source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S) source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.
Chitosan has been successfully incorporated as a filler in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) matrix with a combination of plasticizers, namely 1,3-dioxolane (DIOX) and tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME). The composite gel-polymer electrolyte (CGPE) membranes were prepared by solution casting technique in an argon atmosphere. The prepared membranes were subjected to SEM, TG/DTA and FT-IR analyses. A Li/CGPE/Li symmetric cell was assembled and the variation of interfacial resistance was measured as a function of time. The lithium transference number (Li+t) was measured and the value was calculated as 0.6 which is sufficient for battery applications. The electrochemical stability window of the sample was studied by linear sweep voltammetry and the polymer electrolyte was found to be stable up to 5.2 V.
Afarin Bahrami, Kasra Behzad, Nastaran Faraji and Alireza Kharazmi
This work presents the synthesis of PANI-PVA-ZnS nanocomposite films by gamma irradiation approach. The samples were irradiated with different doses ranging from 10 kGy to 40 kGy. Subsequently, structural, morphological, optical and electrical characteristics of the samples were investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical structure of the samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of nanocomposites. The electronic absorption characteristics of the samples were measured by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AC and DC electrical behaviors of the samples were characterized using LCR meter in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The impedance values of the samples were extracted from Cole-Cole plots and consequently DC conductivity was calculated.
During recent decades, magnetic and semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted significant attention of scientists in various fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Fe3+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to a cubic system and its lattice cell parameters were evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 8 nm. The morphology of prepared samples was analyzed by using SEM and TEM investigations. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in FT-IR spectra. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Fe3+ ions enter the host lattice in octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles revealed UV and blue emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from the emission spectrum of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles.
G. Bhuvaneswari, L. Guru Prasad and N. Prabhavathi
A triphenylmethane-4-nitroaniline salt has been synthesized and the crystals have been grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown single crystal was investigated by recording the powder XRD, FT-IR spectrum, UV-Vis spectrum, Vickers microhardness test, dielectric measurements and powder SHG. The growth of crystal was confirmed by analyzing the XRD pattern and it was stated that the grown material crystallized in triclinic system. Vibrational peaks of the functional groups existing in the compound were identified. Vickers microhardness studies were carried to measure the mechanical strength. In order to identify the phase transition temperature, the dielectric studies were carried out at different temperatures. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and impedance of the crystal were monitored with respect to the frequency of electric field.