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Dietary Fiber Extraction from Defatted Corn Hull by Hot-Compressed Water

Abstract

Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW) from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA) extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB) increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR) decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

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Milk acetone determination by the photometrical method after microdiffusion and via FT infra-red spectroscopy

, Ficnar J, Jílek M, Ticháček A, Jedelská R, Dolínková A (1999): A notes to interpretation procedures of results ketone and acetone contents evaluation (Ketotest) in individual cow's milk samples (in Czech). Cattle Research 61: 17-34. Hanuš O, Genčurová V, Kopecký J, Jedelská R, Motyčka Z, Černocký M (2008a): The interpretation of experimental calibration results of routine IR instruments for determination of free fatty acid contents of milk fat (in Czech). Cattle Research 50: 55-62. Hanuš O, Hering P, Frelich J, Jílek

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Using of wooden sawdust for copper removal from waters

-401. Schwanninger M, Rodrigues JC, Pereira H, Hinterstoisser B (2004) Effects of short-time vibratory ball milling on the shape of FT-IR spectra of wood and cellulose. Vib. Spectros. 36: 23-40. Šćiban M, Radetić B, Kevrešan Ž, Klašnja M (2007) Adsorption of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater by wood sawdust. Bioresour. Technol. 98: 402-409. Shukla A, Zhang YH, Dubey P, Margrave JL, Shukla SS (2002) The role of sawdust in the removal of unwanted materials from water. J. Hazard. Mater. 95: 137-152. Singovszka E, Balintova M, Holub M (2016) Heavy metal

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Analysis of European Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Wings Using ATR-FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy: A Pilot Study

, 32, 1577-1583. Iconomidou JA, Chryssikos GD, Gionis V, Willis JH, Hamodrakas SJ (2001): ‘Soft’-cuticle protein secondary structure as revealed by FT-Raman, ATR FT-IR and CD spectroscopy. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 31, 877-885. Kaya M, Mujtaba M, Bulut E, Akyuz B, Zelencova L, Sofi K (2015): Fluctuation in physicochemical properties of chitins extracted from different body parts of honeybee. Carbohydrate Polymers, 132, 9-16. Kong J, Yu S (2007): Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic

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Crude Protein and Non-protein Nitrogen Content in Dairy Cow Milk

review. Veterinarija ir zootechnika, t. 44 (66). 21. Šustova, K., Ružičkova, J., Kuchtik, J. (2007). Application of FT near spectroscopy for determination of true protein and casein in milk. Czech journal Animal Science, Vol. 52, No 9, 284-291. 22. Твердохлеб, Г. В., Раманаускас, Р. И. (2006). Химия и физика молока и молочных продуктов. (Chemistry and physics of milk and dairy products) Москва : ДеЛи принт, 360.

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The Response of Artificial Aging to Sorption Properties of Biochar for Potentially Toxic Heavy Metals

Abstract

This paper evaluates the effect of simulated conditions of artificial aging on sorption capacity of two types of biochar. These were produced by slow pyrolysis from different feedstock - beech wood chips (BC A) and garden green waste residues (BC B). Cadmium served as a model for potentially toxic metals. Twenty freeze-thaw cycles were used to simulate physical aging. The determination of biochar physicochemical properties showed main changes in CEC and SA values of aged sorbents. The maximum sorption capacities of aged BC A sorbent were higher by about 26 % and aged BC B sorbent by about 20% compared to Qmax of non-aged biochar. Qmax of aged BC B peaked at 9.4 mg g-1 whereas BC A sorbed significantly less Cd. FT-IR analyses confirmed the changes in structural composition and content of functional groups on biochar surfaces. The artificial physical aging model was assessed as an efficient tool for investigation of natural weathering conditions.

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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Chloroform Fraction of Platycerium Bifurcatum

Abstract

The study investigated the bioactive constituents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Platycerium bifucartum leaves. Chloroform fraction of P. bifurcatum was prepared by partitioning the ethanol extract with chloroform and water. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Fourier transformer-infrared (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) were used in the characterization of the bioactive compounds. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the chloroform fraction were evaluated using standard protocols. The fourier transformer-infrared analysis showed the presence of C=O, OH, CHO, C-F and -NH functional groups. GC/MS characterization gave benzeneethaneamine (33.3%), 2-amino-1-(4-methylphenyl) propane (17.04%), hydroxyurea (30.26%) and epinephrine (13.26). The extract inhibited the growth of the bacterial isolates. The fraction exhibited antioxidant properties that were comparable with ascorbic acid. The presence of these compounds showed that the leaves of Platycerium bifurcatum can be used for the treatment of some bacterial diseases.

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Antioxidant, antibacterial properties and the light barrier assessment of raw and purified melanins isolated from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds

Summary

Introduction: The nutritive value and terapeuthic activity of watermelon seeds is known, but up to day no studies on isolation and characterisation of their melanin were conducted.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and light barrier properties of raw and purified melanins isolated from watermelon seeds.

Methods: Native melanin was isolated from seeds by alkaline extraction. Obtained pigment was purified by acid hydrolysis. Chemical tests and FT-IR analysis were conducted to determine the melanin nature of the isolated pigments. UV-Vis, transmittance and colour properties were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant activity was determined using ABTS and antibacterial activity through a well diffusion method.

Results: The results of the study demonstrated that melanins isolated from watermelon seeds had antioxidant, light barrier and antibacterial properties. A purified form of melanin had higher antioxidant activity and light barrier properties than the raw form. Both melanins inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Conclusions: Watermelon seeds may be considered as a promising source of natural melanin which possess remarkable therapeutic action that can support the traditional use of this plant in the ethnomedicine.

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Antifouling activities of extracellular polymeric substances produced by marine bacteria associated with the gastropod (Babylonia sp.)

Abstract

Bacteria associated with surfaces have been frequently cited as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites. In this study, bacteria associated with marine gastropod, Babylonia sp. were isolated and screened for antibacterial activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The antibiofilm and antifouling effect of the selected surface- associated bacterial strains were examined under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Results showed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the bacterial strain CML associated with gastropod species considerably reduced the adhesion of biofilm-forming bacteria on glass coupons. Besides, the antifouling coat prepared by incorporating of this EPS into polyurethane varnish prevented the settlement of biofoulers on test substratum submerged in marine waters. The functional groups present in the EPS were analyzed using FT-IR. The bacterium responsible for the production of the bioactive EPS was identified as Bacillus subtilis subsp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. More detailed characterization of the identified bioactive EPS could lead to the isolation of a novel natural antifouling product.

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Adsorptive removal of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid from aqueous solution

References Abdelnaeim MY, El Sherif IY, Attia AA, Fathy NA, El-Shahat MF (2016) Impact of chemical activation on the adsorption performance of common reed towards Cu(II) and Cd(II). Int. J. Miner. Process. 157: 80-88. Ahmaruzzaman M (2010) A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36: 327-363. Akyuz S, Akyuz T (2008) FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic studies of adsorption of isoniazid by montmorillonite and saponite. In Vib. Spectrosc., A collection of papers presented at the 4 th International Conference on Advanced

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