The effect of supports on coke deposition on supported platinum and platinum-tin catalysts investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy
Coke deposit is produced from ethylene on the surface of the platinum and platinum-tin catalysts supported on two various Al2 O3, SiO2 and SiO2 -Al2O3. The coke amount and the structure depend on the type and the amount of the components introduced onto the catalyst support and on the type of the support. It has been found that the surface area of the support has no significant effect on the type of species in the coke deposit. The analysis of the FT-IR spectra has shown the presence of different species on the surface of the catalysts, including carboxyl groups, pseudo-graphite (polyaromatic) structures, polyphenylene groups, acetyl groups, carbonyl groups of acetone and formate type, enol species.
Tomasz Szmechtyk, Natalia Sienkiewicz, Katarzyna Koter, Agnieszka Kobierska and Krzysztof Strzelec
In this study novel transversal pneumatic artificial muscles (TPAM), made from composite – poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix membrane and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) satin reinforcement, are presented. Miniature TPAM consists of a flexible internal braid (IB) reinforcing the membrane and the external braid (EB). EB, with fibers arranged transversely to the IB, is placed laterally. Differently prepared TPAMs were tested for their effectiveness as actuators for robot drive and the PDMS/PET composite suitability was evaluated for applications in human gastrointestinal tract (chemical resistance, thermal characteristic). FT-IR spectra of the composite were compared for study PDMS impregnation process of PET satin and effect of immersion in selected solution. The composite shows outstanding biocompatibility and the muscles have competitive static load characteristics in comparison with other pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM). These results lead to believe, that in the near future painless examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a secure robot will be possible.
Tomasz Olejnik, Sylwia Pasieczna-Patkowska, Adam Lesiuk and Janusz Ryczkowski
Ordered SBA-15 mesoporous silica supports have been synthesized and used for incorporation of titanium with different Ti/Si weight ratio via incipient wetness impregnation. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used as a source of Ti. Obtained catalysts were characterized to investigate the chemical framework and morphology by nitrogen sorption measurements, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR/PAS). The photocatalytic degradation of phenol and methylene blue water solutions were selected as a probe reactions to the photoactivity test of prepared samples and to verify the potential application of these materials for water purification. Experimental results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of Ti/Si mixed materials depends on the adsorption ability of composites and the photocatalytic activity of the titanium oxide.
Joanna Grzechulska-Damszel, Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Janusz Typek, Nikos Guskos and Antoni W. Morawski
using FTIR spectroscopy. J. Mol. Struct . 1130, 33–37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2016.10.019 .
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30. Romano, N., Santos, M., Mobili, P., Vega, R. & Gómez-Zavaglia, A. (2016). Effect of sucrose concentration on the composition of enzymatically synthesized short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides as determined by
reflectance and transmission infrared spectroscopy for the study of carbon fibers. Fuel 74, 543-548. DOI: 10.1016/0016-2361(95)98357-K.
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30. Soudais, Y., Moga, L., Blazek, J. & Lemort, F. (2007). Coupled DTA-TGA-FT-IR investigation of pyrolytic decomposition of EVA, PVC and cellulose. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 78(1):46–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2006.04.005 .
31. Li, Y., Wang, C., Wang G. & Qu, Z. (2008). Application of the long-chain linear polyester in plastification of PVC. J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. 23(1), 100–104. DOI: 10.1007/S11595-006-1100-3.
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Agnieszka Sobczak, Anna Kida, Zygmunt Kowalski and Zbigniew Wzorek
Evaluation of the biomedical properties of hydroxyapatite obtained from bone waste
The method of obtaining hydroxyapatite by thermal treatment of deproteinised and defatted bone pulp called bone sludge was presented. The products of the calcining process were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The calcium content was determined with titration, whereas the contents of total phosphorus - with a spectrophotomertric method. X-ray investigations confirmed that hydroxyapatite was the main component of the calcining products in the calcining process. The FT-IR spectra confirmed that all organic substances were removed during the calcining process. On the basis of the research into physiological liquids the propensity to resorption of hydroxyapatite bioceramic was evaluated.