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Erika Turianicova

. Infrared Spectra of Minerals and Related Inorganic Compounds. London: Butterworths, 1975. 277 pp. [12] NAKAMOTO, K. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic and Coordination Compounds: Part A: Theory and Applications in Inorganic Chemistry. New York: Wiley,1997. 400 pp. [13] ZHANG, Z.; Zheng, Y., Ni, Y., Liu, Z., Chen, J., Liang, X. Temperature-and pH-dependent morphology and FT-IR analysis of magnesium carbonate hydrates. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B . 2006, 110 (26),12969-12973. [14] TURIANICOVA, E.; OBUT, A.; ZORKOVSKA, A.; BALAZ, P.; MATIK

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Josef Pšenička, Erwin L. Zodrow and José A. D'Angelo

Spores 11, 619-668. Laveine, J.-P. 1970. Quelques Pécoptéridiées houil-léres a la lumiére de la palynologie (II). Implications paléobotaniques et stratigraphiques. Pollen et Spores 12, 235-297. Lin, R., Ritz, G.P 1993a. Reflectance FT-IR mi-crospectroscopy of fossil algae contained in or-ganic-rich shale. Applied Spectroscopy 47, 265

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Ivana Schwarzová

. Bioresource Technology . 2008, 99 (1), 94-99. [18] ŠUTKA A., KUKLE S., GRAVITIS J., GRAVE, L. Characterization of Cellulose Microfibrils Obtained from Hemp. In Conference Papers in Materials Science. 2013, 2013 , 1-5. [19] FACKLER K., STEVANIC J. S., TERS T., HINTERSTOISSER B., SCHWANNINGER M., SALMÉN L. FT-IR imaging spectroscopy to loclise and characterise simultaneous and selective white-rot decay within sprude wood cell. Holzforschung . 2011, 65 , 411-420.

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Magdalena Witkowska

-lowermost Upper Bathonian). Lithology, fossil assemblages and paleoenvironment. 7th International Congress on the Jurassic System. September 6-18 2006, Krakow, Poland, 155-156. Polish Geological Institute, Warszawa. Gedl, P. and Kaim, A. 2012. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) sediments at Gnaszyn, Krakow-Częstochowa Upland, Poland - introduction. Acta Geologica Polonica , 62 (3), 267-280. Goldhaber, M.B. and Kaplan, I.R. 1974. The sulfur cycle. In: E.D. Goldberg (Ed.), The Sea, 5, 569-655. Wiley

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Julia Engelke, Klaus J.K. Esser, Christian Linnert, Jörg Mutterlose and Markus Wilmsen

. 2005. Climatic changes in the Late Campanian–Early Maastrichtian: Micropaleontological and stable isotopic evidence from an epicontinental sea. Journal of Foraminiferal Research , 35 , 228–247. Fürsich, F.T. and Hurst, J.M. 1994. Environmental factors determining the distribution of brachiopods. Palaeontology , 17 , 879–900. Gale, A.S. 2002a. Corals. In: A.B. Smith and D.J. Batten (Eds), Fossils of the Chalk (2 nd Ed.). Palaeontological Association Field Guides to Fossils. Field Guides to Fossils, 2 , 42–46. London. Gale, A.S. 2002b. Serpulids

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Beata Stepańczak, Krzysztof Szostek and Jacek Pawlyta

-AJPA9〉3.0.CO;2-S. [56] Nagy G, Lorand T, Patonai Z, Montsko G, Bajnoczky I, Marcsik A and Mark L, 2008. Analysis of pathological and non-pathological human skeletal remains by FT-IR spectroscopy. Forensic Science International 175: 55–60, DOI 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.05.008. [57] Nyman JS, Ni Q, Nicolella DP and Wang X, 2008. Measurements of mobile and bound water by nuclear magnetic resonance correlate with mechanical properties of bone. Bone 42: 193–199, DOI 10.1016/j.bone.2007

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Marek Osacký, Miroslav Honty, Jana Madejová, Thomas Bakas and Vladimír Šucha

with metal Fe at low temperature: 1. Smectite destabilization. Clays Clay Miner. 53, 6, 597-612. Madejová J., Bujdák J., Janek M. & Komadel P. 1998: Comparative FT-IR study of structural modifications during acid treatment of dioctahedral smectites and hectorite. Spectrochimica Acta, Part A , 54, 1397-1406. Madejová J., Kečkéš J., Pálková H. & Komadel P. 2002: Identification of components in smectite/kaolinite mixtures. Clay Miner. 37, 377-388. Madsen F. T. 1998: Clay mineralogical

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Pentrák Martin, Madejová Jana, Andrejkovičová Slávka, Uhlík Peter and Komadel Peter

. & Komadel P. 2001: Baseline studies of The Clay Minerals Society Source Clays: Infrared methods. Clays and Clay Miner. 49, 410-432. Madejová J., Kraus I., Tunega D. & Šamajová E. 1997: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterisation of kaolinite group minerals from the main Slovak deposits. Geol. Carpathica - Clays 6, 3-10. Madejová J., Bujdák J., Janek M. & Komadel P. 1998: Comparative FT-IR study of structural modifications during acid treatment of dioctahedral smectites and hectorite. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 54, 1397

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Alina Chrząstek and Monika Wypych

activities of crabs and their environmental significance: the ichnogenus Psilonichnus . Journal of Paleontology 58, 333–350. Frey, R.W., Howard, J.D. & Pryor, W.A., 1978. Ophiomorpha : Its morphologic, taxonomic, and environmental significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 23, 199–229. Frey, S.E. & Dashtgard, S.E., 2011. Sedimentology, ichnology and hydrodynamics of strait-margin, sand and gravel beaches and shorefaces: Juan de Fuca Strait, British Columbia, Canada. Sedimentology 58, 1326–1346. Fürsich, F.T., Wilmsen, M

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Ikpa Chinyere Benardette Chinaka, Onoja Samuel Okwudili and Dozie-Akaniro Ijeoma Nkiru

Abstract

The study investigated the bioactive constituents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Platycerium bifucartum leaves. Chloroform fraction of P. bifurcatum was prepared by partitioning the ethanol extract with chloroform and water. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Fourier transformer-infrared (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) were used in the characterization of the bioactive compounds. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the chloroform fraction were evaluated using standard protocols. The fourier transformer-infrared analysis showed the presence of C=O, OH, CHO, C-F and -NH functional groups. GC/MS characterization gave benzeneethaneamine (33.3%), 2-amino-1-(4-methylphenyl) propane (17.04%), hydroxyurea (30.26%) and epinephrine (13.26). The extract inhibited the growth of the bacterial isolates. The fraction exhibited antioxidant properties that were comparable with ascorbic acid. The presence of these compounds showed that the leaves of Platycerium bifurcatum can be used for the treatment of some bacterial diseases.