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Application of Fourier Transform Infra-red Evolved Gas Analysis (FT-IR-EGA) to the Study of Tobacco Curing

References 1. Lephardt, J. O., and R. A. Fenner: Characterization of pyrolysis and combustion of complex systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Appl. Spectrosc. 34 (1980) 174—185. 2. Lephardt, J, O., and R. A. Fenner: Fourier transform infrared evolved gas analysis — Additional considerations and options; Appl. Spectrosc. 35 (1980) 95—101. 3. Lephardt, J. O.: Fourier transform infrared evolved gas analysis (FT-IR-EGA); Appl, Spectrosc. Rev. 18 (1982-3) 265

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Peat Humic Substances and Earthworm Biohumus Extracts for Agricultural Applications

Extracts for agricultural use were prepared using cavitation method at 45 oC and at 95 oC from peat and earthworm biohumus. Samples of all studied extracts had similar dry-matter content. Peat humic substances and earthworm biohumus extracts were analysed using UV-Vis, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectrometry. Trace element analysis was performed with atomic absorption spectrometry. Extracts were tested for acidity, conductivity, humic acid concentration, and carboxyl group concentration. Hydrophobicity was assessed using a water-polyethylene glycol twophase system and calculation of the partition coefficient. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentration was determined. Concentration of the humic substances slightly changed during the heating process. Significant changes in total phosphorus concentration was observed both in earthworm humus and peat extract. Thermal treatment caused decrease of hydrophobicity and lower concentration of organic matter in extracts, while carboxyl group concentrations in isolated humic substances practically did not change. The calculated ratio from UV-Vis spectra showed significant difference in humification degree of samples.

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An Application of Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) Microspectroscopy to the Study of Cigarette Manufacturing Defects

Abstract

FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate a common type of cigarette defect in which the filter separates from the tobacco rod. Infra-red imagings of the adhesive located at this junction on the tipping papers from both defective and acceptable cigarettes were obtained. A comparison of these data revealed that although adhesive was present in the seam area of the defective cigarettes, the amount of adhesive was significantly less and its distribution was not uniform.

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Peat humification character in two ombrotrophic bogs depending on peat properties

aqueous phases of a peat bog profile using molecular fluorescence spectroscopy, ESR and FT-IR, and comparison with physical properties. Org. Geochem. , 34 , 49-60. Fong, S. S., Mohamed, M. (2007). Chemical characterization of humic substances occurring in the peats of Sarawak, Malaysia. Org. Geochem. , 38 (6), 967-976. Ghaly, R. A., Pyke, J. B., Ghaly, A. E., Ugursal, V. I. (1999). Remediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil using peat. Energy Sources, A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects

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Puff-by-puff Mainstream Smoke Analysis by Multiplex Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

References 1. Seligman, R.B, F.E. Resnik, A.E. 0Nkeeffe, J.C. Holmes, F.A. Morrell, D.P. Murrill, and F.L. Gager: Gas chromatography in tobacco research; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 120K125. 2. Koller, K, C. Thomas, M. Parrish, and D. Leyden: Puff-by puff determination of gas phase acetaldehyde, HCN, NO, and CO using FT-IR spectroscopy; Buli. Spec. CORESTA, Symposium Kallithea, 1990, abstr. S06, p. 211. 3. Zhang, M. and J. Philips: Applications of multiplex gas chromatography to the

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Adhesive Distribution between Paper Components of Cigarettes

References 1. Thompson, M.M. and M.S. Ireland: An application of Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to the study of cigarette manufacturing defects; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 15 (1992) 59–64 2. Komatsubara O., T. Yoshida, and K. Kaneki: Computational analysis of flow through perforations in tipping paper; Paper presented at the CORESTA Meeting of the Smoke and Technology Groups, Innsbruck, 1999. 3. Conners, T.E. and S. Banerjee (eds.): Surface analysis of paper

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Quantitative and Structure Analysis of Cellulose in Tobacco by 13C CP / MAS NMR Spectroscopy

CP-MAS NMR and FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis of Cuticular Fractions of Berries and Suberized Membranes of Potato; J. Food Comp. Anal. 24 (2011) 334–345. Jarvinen R. Silvestre A.J.D. Gil A.M. Kallio H. Solid State 13 C CP-MAS NMR and FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis of Cuticular Fractions of Berries and Suberized Membranes of Potato J. Food Comp. Anal. 24 2011 334 345 21. Tokoh, C., K. Takabe, J. Sugiyama, and M. Fujita: CP/MAS 13 C NMR and Electron Diffraction Study of Bacterial Cellulose Structure Affected by Cell Wall

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Low-Temperature Oxidation of CO in Smoke: A Review

, M. Makkee, and J.A. Moulijn: The mechanism of low-temperature CO oxidation with Au/Fe 2 O 3 catalysts: a combined Mossbauer, FT-IR, and TAP reactor study; J. Catal. 230 (2005) 52–65. 88. Dyakonov, A.J. and D.A. Grider: “A smoking article including a selective carbon monoxide pump”, Patent WO 0243514, June 6, 2002. 89. Davis, R.J.: New perspectives on basic catalysts and catalyst support; J. Catal. 216 (2003) 396–405. 90. Aylor, A.W., L.J. Lobree, J.A. Reimer, and A.T. Bell

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Investigation of Tobacco Pyrolysis Gases and Puff-by-puff Resolved Cigarette Smoke by Single Photon Ionisation (SPI) - Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS)

cigarette smoke; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 3 (1977) 28–58. 14. Dube, M.F. and C.R. Green: Methods of collection of smoke for analytical purposes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 8 (1982) 42–102. 15. Streibel, T., K. Hafner, F. Mühlberger, T. Adam, R. Warnecke, and R. Zimmermann: Investigation of NO x precursor compounds and other combustion by-products in the primary combustion zone of a waste incineration plant using on-line, real time mass spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR); Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384 (2005

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Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: The Evolution of Methods and Devices for Generation, Exposure and Collection

. 6 (1972) 178–181. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0289 560. Newsome, J.R., V. Norman, and C.H. Keith: Vapor Phase Analysis of Tobacco Smoke; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 102–110. 561. Norman, V., J.R. Newsome, and C.H. Keith: Smoking Machines for the Analysis of the Vapor Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 10 (1966) 216–221. 562. Koller, K.B., C.E. Thomas, M.E. Parrish, and D.E. Leyden: Puff by Puff Determination of Gas Phase Acetaldehyde, HCN, NO and CO Using FT-IR Spectroscopy; Philip Morris (1990). Available at: http

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