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The Laboratory of Natural Radiation (LNR) – a place to test radon instruments under variable conditions of radon concentration and climatic variables

References 1. UNSCEAR. (2000). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Volume I: Sources; Volume II: Effects. (E.00.IX.3 and E.00.IX.4). New York: UN. UNSCEAR 2000 Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Volume I: Sources; Volume II: Effects (E.00.IX.3 and E.00.IX.4) New York UN 2. Council of the European Union. (1996). Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation

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The applicability of C-14 measurements in the soil gas for the assessment of leakage out of underground carbon dioxide reservoirs

Abstract

Poland, due to the ratification of the Kioto Protocol, is obliged to diminish the emission of greenhouse gases. One of the possible solutions of this problem is CO2 sequestration (CCS - carbon capture and storage). Such an option is a priority in the European Union. On the other hand, CO2 sequestration may be potentially risky in the case of gas leakage from underground reservoirs. The most dangerous event may be a sudden release of the gas onto the surface. Therefore, it is very important to know if there is any escape of CO2 from underground gas reservoirs, created as a result of sequestration. Such information is crucial to ensure safety of the population in areas located above geological reservoirs. It is possible to assess the origin of carbon dioxide, if the measurement of radiocarbon 14C concentration in this gas is done. If CO2 contains no 14C, it means, that the origin of the gas is either geological or the gas has been produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, like coal. A lot of efforts are focused on the development of monitoring methods to ensure safety of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. A radiometric method has been tested for such a purpose. The main goal of the investigations was to check the application possibility of such a method. The technique is based on the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The gas sample is at first bubbled through the carbon dioxide adsorbent, afterwards the adsorbent is mixed with a dedicated cocktail and measured in a low-background liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus. The described method enables measurements of 14C in mine and soil gas samples.

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Radionuclide neutron source trajectories in the closed nuclear fuel cycle

equilibrium state. Nucl. Eng. Des. , 301 , 341–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.02.025 . 4. Stanisz, P., Cetnar, J., & Domańska, G. (2015). Modeling minor actinide multiple recycling in a lead-cooled fast reactor to demonstrate a fuel cycle without long-lived nuclear waste. Nukleonika , 60 (3), 581–590. DOI: 10.1515/nuka-2015-0111. 5. Cetnar, J., Stanisz, P., & Domańska, G. (2013). Adiabatic fuel cycle assessment of LFR core with MOX using MCB system. Study for the LEADER project of European Union’s 7th FP EURATOM . Kraków: AGH University

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Distribution of indoor radon concentrations between selected Hungarian thermal baths

References 1. UNSCEAR. (2010). UNSCEAR 2008 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Vol. 1. New York: UN. UNSCEAR 2010 UNSCEAR 2008 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes 1 New York UN 2. World Health Organization. (2009). Handbook on indoor radon: A public health perspective. Switzerland: WHO. World Health Organization 2009 Handbook on indoor radon: A public health perspective Switzerland WHO 3. Council of the European Union. (2014). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM

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Radon 222Rn in drinking water of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

with regard to radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Union L , 296/2013, 12–21. 7. Regulation of the Minister of the Health of 7 December 2017 on quality of the water intended for human consumption. Dz. U ., 2017, item 2294 (in Polish). 8. Wieprzowski, K. (2005). Instruction I-02/PO-02/LHR/HR. Sampling of water for determination activity concentration of alpha/beta activity, radon and tritium. Warsaw: National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Department of Radiation

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Radon emission rate and analysis of its influencing parameters

Suppl. 1 1 84 3. Kendall, G. M., & Smith, T. J. (2002). Doses to organs and tissues from radon and its decay. J. Radiol. Prot. , 22 , 389–406. Kendall G. M. Smith T. J. 2002 Doses to organs and tissues from radon and its decay J. Radiol. Prot. 22 389 406 4. Council of the European Union. (2014). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. Brussels: O. J. EU. Council of the European Union

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Radon problems in mining and post-mining areas in Upper Silesia region, Poland

References 1. Council of the European Union. (2014). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom. Brussels: O. J. EU. (Official Journal of the European Union, 17.1.2014., L13/1–L13/73). Council of the European Union 2014 Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for

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First steps towards national radon action plan in Serbia

. Council of the European Union. (2014). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom. (Official Journal of the European Union 2014; L13). Retrieved from http://www.srbatom.gov.rs/srbatom/doc/eu-direktive/2013%2059%20eng.pdf . Council of the European Union 2014 Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic

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Radon permeability of insulating building materials

concentration in homes located in different geological regions of Poland-first approach to whole country area J. Environ. Radioact. 102 735 741 12. Council of the European Union. (2014). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom. (Non-legislative acts). Brussels: O. J. EU. Council of the European Union 2014 Council

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‘Zero energy’ electron beam technology for sludge hygienization

-Batanony, M., Kreuzig, R., & Abo-El Seoud, M. (2002). Irradiated sewage sludge for increased crop production – I. Pathogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In Irradiated sewage sludge for application to cropland (pp. 67–73). Vienna: IAEA. (IAEA-TECDOC-CD-1317). 10. Strauch, D. (1991). Survival of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in excreta, manure and sewage sludge. Rev. Sci. Tech. OIE , 10 (3), 813–846. 11. European Union. (1986, June). EU Council Directive 86/278/EEC of 12 June 1986 on the protection of the environment, and in particular of

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