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), Department of Education (DoED), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (Sloan) have started requiring the sharing of research outputs ( National Institutes of Health, 2005 ; National Institutes of Health, 2008 ) and mandating data management plan ( National Science Foundation, 2010a , 2010b ). Similar mandates from funding agencies of a variety of other countries include the UK (UKRI, n.d.) , Canada ( Government of Canada, 2016 ), Australia (ARC, 2017), EuropeanUnion ( Shearer, 2015 ), Japan (JST, 2013) , and India ( Department of
Eftihia Nathanail, Lambros Mitropoulos, Ioannis Karakikes and Giannis Adamos
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it does not point out to a specific country. Many of the organizations in Table 3 are national government institutes or research foundations. However, there is the European Community , which is an institution of EuropeanUnion. We can assume that the authors of a paper whose acknowledgment mentions European Community are more likely to have co-worked with the authors from a country in Europe. Another interesting finding is the dominance of less well-known universities such as the University of Arizona, Pusan National University , and Iowa State University
. Subsequently, for each node v , all the segments seg ( e i ) of edge e i starting from node v are combined as a union segment to denote the temporal feature of the node v , i.e., seg ( v ) = ∪ seg ( e i ).
Given an S-T query Q , Q can also be easily transformed into an S-T signature query Q * based on the upper conversion method. We define the match of Q * in the S-T signature RDF graph as follows. It can be easily derived that each match ( Definition 14 ) of Q in G corresponds to a match ( Definition 15 ) of Q * in G * .
Given an S
Beth A. Plale, Eleanor Dickson, Inna Kouper, Samitha Harshani Liyanage, Yu Ma, Robert H. McDonald, John A. Walsh and Sachith Withana
limited forms of data availability, particularly for data that may need protections of privacy and intellectual property, protection of human research participants, etc.
Much data resulting from externally funded research can be made available, but some data simply cannot or will ever be completely and freely open. Data should be made open to the fullest extent possible (open access, open use, open license), but there are important cases where controls on the data must be in place. For this latter data, an accommodating principle coined by the EuropeanUnion Horizon