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Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

References Ahn, E. (2007). A Region Divided/United: Language Policy Developments in the European Union. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://aei.pitt.edu/7679/. Ammon, U. (2006). Language conflict in the European Union. On finding a polit- ically acceptable and practicable solution for EU institutions that satisfies diverging interests. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(3), 319-338. DOI: 10.1111/j.1473-4192.2006.00121.x. Branchadell, A. (2007). The language of the Europe is translation. An

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MULTILINGUALISM AT THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

References Alter, K. (2001). Establishing the Supremacy of European Law: The Making of an International Rule of Law in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Andrassy, G. (2001). European Integration and European Languages: Will the Diversity Be Maintained? Studia Iuridica Auctoritate Universitatis Pecs , 127, 11-22. Arnull, A. (2006). The European Union and its Court of Justice (2nd ed.). Oxford EC Law Library. Baaij, C. J. (2012). The EU Policy on Institutional Multilingualism

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Dominance of English in the European Union and in European Law

://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/publications/brochures/index en.html. Directorate-General for Translation. (2011). English Style Guide - a handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission. 7 edition (Luxembourg). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/translation/english/guidelines/documents/styleguideenglishdgten.pdf. European Court of Auditors (2013) A Brief list of misused English terms in EU pub- lications. (Luxembourg). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/translation/english/guidelines/documents/misusedenglishterminologyeupublicationsen.pdf) Grin, F. (2005) L

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Polish “Entrepreneur” and EU “Undertaking”: Multilingualism and Differences in Legal Identification

, D. and Hadjiemmanuil, C. and Maduro, M.P. and Monti, G. (2006). European Union Law: Text and Materials . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Craig, P. and de Burca, G. (2003). EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials . New York: Oxford University Press. Cieśliński, A. (2001). Stosowanie prawa wspólnotowego – wyzwanie dla prawnika praktyka . “Radca Prawny” 2001 (4). Doczekalska, A. (2006). Interpretacja wielojęzycznego prawa Unii Europejskiej . “Europejski Przegląd Sądowy” 2006 (5). Etel, M. (2012). Pojęcie przedsiębiorcy w prawie polskim i

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Preparation of a Legislative Proposal in the Multilingual Legal System of the European Union

://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/guidelines/docs/swd_br_guidelines_en.pdf Borchardt, K.D. (2010). The ABC of European Union Law. Luxemburg: Publications office of the European Union. Buitendijk, G.J. and Van Schendelen, M.P.C.M. (1995). ‘Brussels Advisory Committees: A Channel for Influence?’ European Law Review, 20, 1, 37-57. Chittenden, F., Ambler, F.T., and Xiao, D. (2007). ‘Impact Assessment’ in S.R. Weatherill (Ed.), Better Regulation. Oxford-Portland: Hart Publishing. Christiansen, T. (2001). The European Commission: Administration in Turbulent Times, in Richardson, J. (ed.) European Union

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Multilingualism in the EU and Consistency of Private Enforcement of Competition Law: Two Examples from CEE Countries

rights granted under Union Law (OJ L 201, 26.07.2013). Commission Staff Working Document – Practical guide “Quantifying harm in actions for damages based on breaches of Article 101 or 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union” (C (2013) 3440, 11.06.2013). Communication from the Commission on quantifying harm in actions for damages based on breaches of Article 101 or 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (OJ C 167, 13.06.2013). Conway, G. (2015). EU Law . London–New York: Routledge. Directive 2014/104/EU of

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Attempts for Common Understanding of the Concept of Worker as a Consequence of Globalisation?

” 1993, No. 1. Dølvik J.E., Visser J., Free movement, equal treatment and workers’ tights: can the European Union solve its trilemma of fundamental principle? , “Industrial Relations Journal” 2009, No. 40/6. Egan M.P., Constructing a European Market. Standards, Regulation and Governance , Oxford 2001. Eric C., Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state , “International Journal of Constitutional Law” 2010, No. 8/3. Ewing K.D., Hendy J. QC. (2010), The Dramatic Implications of Demir and Baykara , “Industrial Law Journal

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Illegal, Legal, Irregular or Regular – Who is the Incoming Foreigner?

References United Nations Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (15 November 2000). United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3449 on Measures to ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers (9 December 1975). European Commission “Communication on policy priorities in the fight against illegal migration of third-country nationals”, COM (2006) 402. European Union

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The Unification of Terminology in Terms of Impact of Employees on Decisions Taken in European Business Entities and Polish Law

REFERENCES Bar L. (1980). Samorząd w przedsiębiorstwie państwowym, Państwo i Prawo, No. 12. Blackburn T. L. (1993). The Societas Europea: the Evolving European Corporation Statute, Fordham Law Review, No. 61 (4). Blanpain R. (2002). In serach of European Social Model (ESM): a dream ? [in:] Prawo pracy a wyzwania XXI wieku. Księga Jubileuszowa prof. Tadeusza Zielińskiego, M. Matey-Tyrowicz, L. Nawacki, B. Wagner [ed.], Warszawa: Biuro Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich. Gromski W., Grzegorczyk J., Elementy demokracji robotniczej w Polsce Ludowej

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English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

Abstract

There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs) within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

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