Introduction. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability, sickness absence from work, and loss of productivity in healthcare across all the European Union (EU) member states. Aim. This article examines the available evidence on the economic burden of MSDs on informal carers in the UK and highlights areas of moving and handling practice. Summary. Such solutions might improve the outcomes for informal carers and their families, as well as reduce the economic costs of MSDs.
Jerzy Kiszka, Dorota Ozga, Arkadiusz Mach and Romuald Krajewski
4. Lima P, Bernabe S. Migration and the EU, Challenges, opportunities, the role of EIB. European Investment Bank; 2016, s. 14–19.
5. Fihel A, Kaczmarczyk P, Stefańska R. Recent Trends in International Migration in Poland. Cent East Eur Migr Rev. 2012;1(1):69–90.
6. EESC fact-finding missions on the situation of refugees, as seen by civil society organisations. Mission Report – Poland. European Economic and Social Committee; 2016 s. 1–7.
7. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011. Warszawa: Zakład
Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Kinga Cholewa, Iwona Bodys-Cupak and Alicja Kamińska
Introduction. Migration of professional nurses is a global phenomenon. Polish nurses usually migrate to the relatively richer countries, especially in Europe, thanks to the opening of the borders of the European Union (2004) and legal regulations in the field of education of nurses (Directive 2005/36/EC). Aim. The analysis of symptoms and determinants of acculturative stress and acculturative strategies among Polish migrant nurses working in the UK. Material and methods. The study used a proprietary questionnaire and standardized tool the East Asian Acculturation Measure - Scale of Acculturative Strategy. The research was carried out through Internet among 62 people. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn test, coefficient Spearman. Results. The main reason for the migration of respondents to the UK was the desire to improve financial situation and professional development. Responders found job as a nurse, including a charge nurse and managers in hospitals and nursing homes. Acculturative stress manifested most often in social functioning, then in the emotional, cognitive and physical aspects. It was characterized by a sense of lack of interest from British people, sadness, feelings of loneliness, lower self-confidence and shyness. It was determined significantly by the age of the respondents, the length of stay in the UK, knowledge of English and maintaining social contacts with the British. The most commonly used acculturation strategy was integration, conditioned by the length of stay in the UK and symptoms of acculturative stress. Conclusions. Working in a foreign country is associated with acculturative stress, implementation of acculturation adaptive and non-adaptive strategies.
Introduction. It is estimated that every year 31 million people suffer from sepsis and even 6 million cases of illness end up in the patient’s death. In 2016 the current definition of sepsis was established as a life-threatening multiorgan failure resulting from an abnormal immune response caused by patient infection. The pathobiological approach rejects the current method of diagnosing sepsis based on the occurrence of SIRS, because many other non-infectious diseases may also cause its occurrence. There was proposed a scale of progressive organ failure called SOFA and qSOFA. In May 2017, WHO released a resolution that obliges European Union countries to raise awareness about sepsis prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management.
Results. A nurse is the person who spends the most time with a patient, thus becoming the best observer of changes in his/her vital functions and well-being. Nurses working in basic health care, hospital emergency ward and all departments not involved in intensive medical care, have an important role in prevention of infections, as over 70% of sepsis cases begins in a non-hospital environment, and the current level of public knowledge reaches only 14%.
Barbara Zupanc Terglav, Špela Selak, Mitja Vrdelja, Boris Miha Kaučič and Branko Gabrovec
Republike Slovenije št. 71; 2014. Available at: https://www.uradni-list.si/glasilo-uradni-list-rs/vsebina/2014-01-2937/kodeks-etike-v-zdravstveni-negi-in-oskrbi-slovenije [in Slovenian language]
24. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. World Medical Association; 2008.
25. Standard Eurobarometer 90 – Autumn 2018 “Public opinion in the EuropeanUnion, First results”; 2018. Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2ahUKEwiht5SU2ZLhAhWy-ioKHXWIA6kQFjAAegQIBhAC
importance of focusing on the experiences of overseas nurses
Overseas nurses come from different countries or regions and have different beliefs and cultures. 8 Statistics from the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) provide information on the top 10 countries of origin ( Figure 1 ). Over the past 10 years, the majority of overseas nurses have come from non-EuropeanUnion countries. The main countries to export nurses were the Philippines, India, South Africa, and Australia. Until 2015, there were as many as 22,500 overseas nurses from the Philippines working in the UK
Suwaree Charoenmukayananta, Jiruth Sriratanaban, Sarunya Hengpraprom and Chanvit Trarathep
1. Österle A. Health care across borders: Austria and its new EU neighbours. J Eur Soc Pol. 2007; 17:112-24.
2. Legido-Quigley H, Glinos I, Baeten R, McKee M. Patient mobility in the EuropeanUnion. BMJ. 2007; 334:188-90.
3. Evers S, Paulus A, Boonen A. Integrated care across borders: possibilities and complexities. Int J Integr Care. 2001;1:e18.
4. Groene O, Poletti P, Vallejo P, Cucic C, Klazinga N, Sunol R. Quality requirements for cross-border care in Europe: a qualitative study of
Area (EEA), established on 1 January 1994, is a single market that provides free movement of persons, goods, services and capital between the EEA member states, which now include 28 countries as the EuropeanUnion (EU) and 3 countries in the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) [ 22 ]. According to EU legislation, free movement with full registration in any EEA should become available provided that the physicians are citizens of a member state and have completed primary training in a member state’s medical college and hold a valid license to practice there [ 22
, express consent orally, or sign a consent form. As a general rule, the subject should sign a consent form, or, in the case of incompetence, a legal guardian or other duly authorized representative should do so” [ 5 ].
Questions sometimes arise about what form of documentation of informed consent is appropriate for use in communities where many lack literacy. Some, including the EuropeanUnion, specify illiteracy as a necessary condition for permitting verbal consent. It may be inappropriate to ask participants to sign consent forms in such situations, and people in