Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
fattening purposes in livestock has been banned in the EuropeanUnion (EU) since 1988, according to Council Directives 96/22/EC and 2003/74/EC ( 7 , 8 ). The steroid esters that belong to the A3 group of banned substances should not be present in biological matrices of animal origin, just as other unauthorised substances having anabolic effect included in Annex 1 of Council Directive 96/23/EC. In line with the recommendations of the designated EuropeanUnion Reference Laboratories (EURLs) which oversee and are responsible for the testing of prohibited substances in the
12. Machalaba, C. C., Elwood, S. E., Forcella, S., et al., 2015: Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: a strategy to capture viral diversity. Emerg. Infect. Dis. , 21, 4, e1—e7. DOI: 10.3201/eid2104.141415.
13. Pittman, M., Laddomada, A., Freigofas, R., Piazza, V., Brouw, A., Brown, I. H., 2007: Surveillance, prevention, and disease management of avian influenza in the EuropeanUnion. Journal of Wildlife Diseases , 43, S64—S70.
14. Samantha, J. L., Rogier, B., Anne, P., Jill, B., Bányai, K., Boni, M. F., et al., 2016: Role for
R. Hromada, I. Miňo, Ľ. Korytár, E. Holotová, M. Ondrašovič, T. Pošiváková, P. Korim and L. Takáč
pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC, L70/1.
32. Regulation (EU) No. 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012 concerning the making available on the market and use of biocidal products. Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion , L 167/1.
33. Ruiz-Suárez, N., Boada, L. D., Henríquez-Hernández, L. A., Almeida González, M., Calabuig, P., Estévez-López, D., et al., 2012: Presence of anticoagulant rodenticide residues in five predatory bird species of t he Canary Islands
Natalia Mazur-Panasiuk, Jacek Żmudzki and Grzegorz Woźniakowski
proved that ASFV can be easily transmitted, either by direct contact or indirectly, .via swill feed or contaminated fomites like clothes, footwear, equipment, food waste, bedding, etc. The most spectacular example of the disease spreading through fomites is its current epidemics in Europe, where it was introduced by ships containing ASFV-contaminated kitchen wastes used to feed pigs near Poti docks. Subsequently, the disease spread quickly to the neighbouring Caucasian region, then to Eastern Europe, and finally reached EuropeanUnion countries in 2014 ( 4
( 6 )
( 68 )
Commission Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 establishes detailed regulations for hygiene in foodstuffs in the EuropeanUnion. Section VIII, chapter V indicates that fishery products derived from poisonous fish of the Tetraodontidae , Molidae , Diodontidae , and Canthigasteridae families are banned from the market ( 7 ). In Japan, a regulatory limit of 2 mg equivalent of TTX/kg was laid down for tetrodotoxin, while in Europe appropriate criteria have not been determined ( 4 , 19
Z. Kubicová, M. Filipová, J. Jurovčíková and L Cabanová
soft-ripened cheese — United States, 20815713. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , 63, 294—295.
4. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015: The EuropeanUnion summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014. EFSA Journal , 13: 4329, 191 pp.
5. Felix, B., Danan, C., VanWalle, I., Lailler, R., Texier, T., Lombard, B., Brisabois, A., Roussel, S., 2014: Building a molecular Listeria monocytogenes database to centralise and share
Barbara Woźniak, Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Katarzyna Sielska, Sebastian Witek, Andrzej Posyniak, Krzysztof Niemczuk and Jan Żmudzki
cattle). Fleischwirtsch 1979, 59, 248–250.
15. Regulation (EU) 2017/625 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on official controls and other official activities performed to ensure the application of food and feed law, rules on animal health and welfare, plant health and plant protection products, Off J Eur Union 2017, L 95/1.
16. Regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of June 21, 2017 on the monitoring of prohibited substances, chemical and biological residues, medicinal products and radioactive
Listeriosis is one of the most dangerous foodborne zoonoses with a high mortality rate reaching 20%–30% ( 32 , 33 , 39 ). Although it is a relatively rare illness, with the notification rate of 0.46 cases per 100,000 persons in 2015 in the EuropeanUnion (EU), most of the infections required hospitalisation (97.4%) ( 9 ). At the same year 2,206 confirmed human listeriosis cases and 270 deaths were noted. In Poland in 2015, 70 people suffered from Listeria monocytogenes infection, with the notification rate of 0.18 ( 9 ). A significant
Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak and Jan Żmudzki
.F., Scahill B.G., West D.M.: Natural zeranol (α-zearalanol) in the urine of pasture-fed animals. J Agr Food Chem 1994, 42 , 2721-2725.
7. European Commission SANCO/2004/2726 Guidelines for the implementation of decision 2002/657/EC rev 4- December 2008.
8. European Community Council Directive 96/22/EC of 29 April 1996 concerning the prohibition on the use in stockfarming of certain substances having a hormonal or thyreostatic action and of β-agonists, and repealing Directives 81/602/EEC, 88/146/EEC and 88/299/EEC. Off J Eur Commun L125