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Possibilities of utilizing the solid by-products of biodiesel production - a review
As a consequence of the intended rise in the volume of the biodiesel produced by the member states of the European Union, predominantly from rapeseeds and sunflower seeds, the quantity of the by-products being generated, e.g. glycerol, rapeseed/sunflower seed straw and rapeseed/sunflower seed meal, will increase dramatically. It is therefore recommendable to find effective methods for their processing or utilization in order to reduce the costs of biodiesel production without polluting the environment by excessive wastes. As the utilization of glycerol has often been addressed in the literature1, the aim of our study is to describe the potentiality for utilizing the solid by-products of biodiesel production, namely rapeseed/sunflower straw and rapeseed/ sunflower seed meal.
The European Union produces about 18 million tons of waste from meat industry per year. The real danger of the BSE disease caused a necessity of looking for a new alternative solution of meat waste management. The proposed solution of meat industry waste management would create meat production waste free with the use of the cleaner production method. Cleaner production includes: pollution prevention, reduction of the source, recovery of materials and energy (for example: the recovery of blood plasma and protein hydrolisate from bone sludge) and their recycling. The thermal processing of meat industrial waste (bone sludge, meat-bone meal and odour) is anticipated, too. Ashes from meat calcining have the phosphorus content close to its concentration, of the typical phosphoric raw materials. That confirmed the possibility of using such ashes as the substitute of phosphoric raw materials. The target model of waste free meat waste management included the results of the implemented and current research.
Przemysław Malinowski, Mirosław Olech, Józef Sas, Wiesław Wantuch, Andrzej Biskupski, Leszek Urbańczyk, Mieczysław Borowik and Jerzy Kotowicz
-1341. in Polish.
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Malinowski, P., Biskupski, A
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Przemysław Malinowski, Mieczysław Borowik, Wiesław Wantuch, Leszek Urbańczyk, Michał Dawidowicz and Andrzej Biskupski
the EuropeanUnion L 304/1.
9. Pawlikowski, S. & Szymonik, S. (1959). About the methodology of determining the hygroscopicity. Przem. Chem. 8, 598-599 (in Polish).
10. Malinowski, P., Biskupski, A. & Głowiński, J. (2007). Preparation methods of calcium sulphate and urea adduct. Pol. J. Chem. Tech. 9(4), 111-114. DOI: 10.2478/v10026-007-0102-z.
1. Kozłowska, A. (2005). The paint stripping. Chemical methods. Protection before corrosion 4, 137-139. (in Polish).
2. Commission Directive 2011/3/EU of 17 January 2011 amending Directive 2008/128/EC laying down specific purity criteria on colours for use in foodstuffs. (2011). Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion . 54(L13), 59-63. DOI:10.3000/17252555.L_2011.013.eng.
3. Wertz, K., Siler, U. & Goralczyk, R. (2004). Lycopene: modes of action to promote prostate health. Arch. Biochem
Monika Ruszak, Marek Inger, Marcin Wilk, Jan Nieścioruk, Magdalena Saramok, Wojciech Kowalik, Jakub Rajewski, Tomasz Wajman, Wojciech Kacprzak and Dariusz Tadasiewicz
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