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Legal aspects of low-emission shipping in the light of provisions of “sulphur directive” adopted by the European Union

ABSTRACT

Shipping emits a variety of air pollutants: sulphur dioxide (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter PM. Air pollutant emissions from maritime transport can be transported over long distances and thus increasingly contribute to air quality problems. Key environmental regulations (international and European) coming into force in this decade address emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2 and PM to control and limit their impact in the atmosphere. In the European Union, accordingly to the legal regulations, in the sulphur emission control areas the required SOx content of fuel will be reduced from 1.5 % to 0.1 % beginning January 2015. Globally, from 2020 onwards, ships operating in all other European Sea areas will have to use fuels with sulphur content of 0.5 % or less.

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Considerations on the Environmental Policies and Strategies of the European Union

References Bădescu Valentin Stelian (2011), Dreptul mediului, Sisteme de management de mediu , “C.H.Beck” Publishing House, Bucharest, p.84. Bud Maria (2009), Dreptul mediului , “Anastasis” Publishing House, Sibiu, p. 34. Cobzaru Angelica (2012), Principiile dreptului european al mediului , “Universul Juridic” Publishing House, Bucharest, p.89. Dragoş Dacian Cosmin; Velişcu Raluca (2004), Introducere în politica de mediu a Uniunii Europene , “Accent” Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, p.26 and 112-113. Duţu Mircea (2012

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Perspectives on offshore wind farms development in chosen countries of European Union

of wind farms localization in light of new law on investments concerning wind power stations. Infrastructure and Ecology of Rural Areas. No. IV/1/2017 p. 1445–1455. Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market. EU OJ L 283, 27/10/2001. Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. EU OJ L 123

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Problems of the social non-acceptance of mining projects with particular emphasis on the European Union – a literature review

. J. of Business Ethics , 39: 319-335. Cragg W., Pearson D., Cooney J. 1995. Ethics, surface mining and the environment. Resour. Policy , 21, 4, 229-235. Damigos D., Kaliampakos D. 2006. The ‘battle of gold’ under the light of green economics: a case study from Greece. Environ. Geol. , 50: 202-218. De Brucker K., Macharis C., Verbeke A. 2013. Multi-criteria analysis and the resolution of sustainable development dilemmas: A stakeholder management approach. European J. of Operat. Resour. , 224, 1: 122-131. EPA, 1995. Community consultation

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Population changes in former voivodeship cities in Poland in the context of suburbanization processes and loss of the administrative function

Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union: Identity, Discourse and Power in the Post Communist Transition in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania . Routledge, Abingdon & New York. Musiał-Malago M. 2016. The process of urban shrinking in Poland. Studia Miejskie , 24: 96–106. Mykhnenko V., Myedvyedyev D., Kuzienko L. 2010. Urban shrinkage in Donetsk and Makiïvka, the Donetsk conurbation, Ukraine , series: SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4, https://www.ufz.de/export/data/400/39019_WP2_report_Donetsk_Makiivka_NEW_kompr.pdf [access on 19/3/2018]. Nelson H

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Propagation of Ship-Generated Noise in Shallow Sea

Framework Directive) , Official Journal of the European Union 25.6.2008, L 164/19-L164/40. 4. Dymarski C., Dymarski P., Żywicki J.: Design and strength calculations of the tripod support structure for offshore power plant , Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 22, 1, pp. 36–46, 2015. 5. Grelowska G., Kozaczka E., Kozaczka S., Szymczak W.: Gdansk Bay seabed sounding and classification of its results , Polish Maritime Research,Vol 20, 3, pp. 45–50, 2013 6. Grelowska G., Kozaczka E., Kozaczka S., Szymczak W.:, Underwater noise generated by a small ship in the

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Results of acoustic emission tests of corrosion protection degree of ship steel tanks covered by means of protective coatings (Phase I)

Results of acoustic emission tests of corrosion protection degree of ship steel tanks covered by means of protective coatings (Phase I)

This paper presents methods and results of the 1st series of tests of acoustic emission (AE) signals, aimed at assessing degree of corrosion protection of a tank made of hull structural steel, protected by means of a protective coating combined from polyurethane layer and concrete filler. The tests were carried out in compliance with a method specially elaborated for application to the work in question. In the method were used requirements of the standards in force, as well as experience gained during realization of the research project CORRSHIP, included in 5th Frame Program of European Union. The application of the AE method to detect and localize corrosion sources during exposure of specimens to corrosive mixture confirmed its high usefulness for the carried-out tests on corrosion protection effectiveness of new types of protective coatings.

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The multidimensional approach to development strategy of marine industry: Part II. Multifaceted analysis of the development outlook for the polish marine industry

, Tamowicz P Regional Innovation System in Pomeranian Province of Poland. 6 th International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation. Kansai Science City, 12-15 August, 2002 World Bank. Poland and the Knowledge Economy: Enhancing Poland's Competitiveness in the European Union. ISBN 83-89188-21-X. Washington D.C., 2004.

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Possibilities for Motorways of the Sea development in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea

Spectrum, No. 26, 2004, pp 3-49. 20. Notteboom T.E. and Rodrigue J.P.: Port Regionalization: Towards a New Phase in Port Development . Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2005, p. 297-313. 21. Paixao A. C. and Marlow P. B.: Fourth generation ports-a question on an agility?. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2003, p. 335-376. 22. Šakalys A. and Palšatis R.: Development of intermodal transport in new European Union states. Transport, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2006

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A Method for The Assessing of Reliability Characteristics Relevant to an Assumed Position-Fixing Accuracy in Navigational Positioning Systems

References 1. ERNP 1996, European Radio-navigation Plan, First Draft For Working Group Review, Booz Allen & Hamilton, Paris, 6 march, 1996. 2. ERNP 2004, European Radio Navigation Services , Development of the European Union Navigation Plan, , Helios Technology Ltd, 25 October 2004. 3. GLA, 2007, General Lighthouse Authorities Radio Navigation Plan, The United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, Delivering 2020 The Vision, January 2007. 4. WRNP 2009, International Association of Marine Aids to

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