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phenomena as well as economic and social processes occurring in the contemporary world ( Jacobs 1961 ; Turok & McGranahan 2013 ; Dijkstra, Garcilazo & McCann 2013 ; Colenbrander 2016 ). They lead the way in development, but they also deal with many problems. This attitude was at least the basis for adopting an urban policy and determining its principal aims, tasks and strategies by the EuropeanUnion ( European Commission [EC] 2007; EC 2008, Parysek 2010a , 2010b; EuropeanUnion [EU] 2011; Parysek 2013 ; EU 2015; EC 2016).
Polish cities and changes occurring
wider literatures on transitions, post-colonialism and post-socialism with more specific literatures on city-region governance and on the particularities of national and sub-national contexts.
There is an established literature on regime transition, which began in the 1980s as a hopeful response to processes of democratisation across many parts of the world,
including in Eastern Europe, Latin America and Africa. The seminal work in the field was the 1986 Transitions from Authoritarian Rule by G. O’Donnell & P. Schmitter (1986) . The work did
last few years met with an unstable banking system, the growth of fiscal deficit, public debt, and unemployment. To tackle this situation, the EuropeanUnion pressured the Portuguese government to adopt austerity measures, which were eventually agreed with the Troika (International Monetary Fund, European Central Bank, and European Commission) in 2011 under the requirement of a €78 billion bailout package ( Caldas 2012 ; OECD 2015 ). The main goal of the Memorandum of Understanding on Specific Economic Conditionality (MoU) between Portugal and the Troika was to
noticeable in the period after 2004, when Poland joined the EuropeanUnion (EU). In this regard, immediately after the establishment of the new system, it was important to draw a clear difference from the old one. This battle had to be conducted at every possible level. It is precisely some of these consequences, which entail radical cuts with the past and interventions over material cultural heritage or are related to the changing relationship between private and public ownership, planned and investor’s urbanism, which are important for understanding the phenomenon of