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In recent years, the interest in the use of renewable fuels in transport has increased. This is due to the European Union’s policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These fuels, in addition to the effect of reducing carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases, may increase the emissions of other exhaust components. The article describes the problems of pollutants emissions from the engine exhaust system, related to the use of biofuels in combustion engines or their additives in conventional fuels. The influence of the chemical composition of selected biofuels on the emissions properties of vehicles and their engines will be discussed. The tests results of engines fuelled with selected biofuels, carried out by the authors of the article, will be presented. These tests will be carried out on chassis dynamometer and engine test bench, in standard research tests used in measurements of pollutants emissions like NEDC, ESC, ETC, etc. Furthermore, selected operational parameters of vehicles and engines will be compared with biofuels and conventional fuels.
Rafał Prusak, Zbigniew Skuza, Marek Kurtyka and Zbigniew Rembiesa
Reduction of CO2 emissions in Poland (excluding transport) should be related to a change in the structure of electricity production sources. Similar actions have been taken by many European countries. In 2017, in the European Union’s power industry, the largest emitters were dominated by coal-fired power plants in Germany (seven power plants). However, the leader of this ranking turned out to be the Belchatów power plant owned by the Polish Energy Group (PGE). Renewable energy is energy obtained from natural processes. It should be obtained in a way that would not cause a deficit of natural resources (renewed in a short time) to have a limited impact on the environment. The purpose of promoting and using renewable energy sources (RES) is to reduce the harmful effects of energy on the natural environment, primarily by limiting greenhouse gas emissions (water vapour, CO2, CH4, CFC, N2O, halon, ozone and industrial gases HFC, PFC, SF6). Biomass is the most widely used renewable energy source currently used. The study of the literature and comparison of the set parameters for different types of biomass in the given order shows that Virginia mallow has the highest usefulness for energy purposes. Considering the fact that both cashew and coconut (shells) cannot be grown due to the climate prevailing in Poland, Virginia mallow seems to be the best alternative for traditional fuels used in the energy sector in the analysed group. Virginia mallow has competitive properties to wood biomass and hard coal only significantly supercedes in terms of calorific value. The energy properties of Virginia mallow can additionally be improved as a result of the torrefaction process. In addition, in the literature on the subject, attention is paid to the fact that mallow may be grown on less-favoured soils and the process of its collection – in contrast to other such plants – does not require the use of specialized agricultural machinery.
It can be stated that over the last ten years in the European Union, the number of bone fractures caused by osteoarthritis has increased twofold. More than 100,000 hip or knee joints in total were implanted in Germany during one year. Within ten years, 5% of them have failed by aseptic loosening. The non-invasive determination of friction forces and control of their values during lubrication of cartilage cells on the superficial layer of human joint surfaces before implantation has a significant but not sufficient impact on the observation of the early abrasive wear of the cartilage joint and development of osteoporosis. From this fact was drawn the inspiration for the performed investigations related to the endoprosthesis surface parameters because knowledge of the roughness of prosthesis surfaces and friction forces and their control methods permits provision of a necessary standard deviation of the gap height and finally information about the implantation possibility. This article has been prepared based on the objective of European Project UE Grant IRSES,612593, 2013-2016 to represent the methodology and goal of the idea described in and make a wider discussion possible on this subject for further developments during the realization. To the research methods and materials used in this article realization belong: Rank Taylor Hobson-Talyscan 150 Apparatus implemented by Talymap Expert and Microsoft Excel Computer Program connected with the Mathcad 15 Professional Program and a new semi-analytical methods of probabilistic and statistic prognosis applied for theory of hydrodynamic lubrication of the curvilinear orthogonal surface and coordinates extended to the friction and wear problems of the endoprosthesis surfaces during the exploitation.
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