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Reducing Pollution Levels Generated by Short Sea Shipping. Use of Bayesian Networks to Analyse the Utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel

., Fridell, E., A comparative life cycle assessment of marine fuels, Journal of Engineering for Maritime Environment, Institution of mechanical engineers, 2011. [7] Cánovas, B., Short Sea Shipping, una estrategia Europea , Documento de Opinión, No. 70. Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos, 2015. [8] Comisión Europea, Libro Blanco, La política europea de transportes de cara al 2010: la hora de la verdad (pp. 11-53), COM (2001) 370 final, Bruselas: Commission of the European Communities. [9] Comisión Europea, Libro Verde, Estrategia europea para

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Advantages of Using Hybrid Vehicles Based on Empirical Studies on the Chassis Dynamometer in the WLTC Test

References [1] Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC), Baseline energy statement – energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions on the railway . The voice of the passenger railway, 3, 2007. [2] EC 2017 Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 , Official Journal of the European Union, 7.7.2017, L 175, 1-643, http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2017/1151/oj , 2017. [3] EEC Directive 90/C81/01, 2016 Committee of Inquiry into Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector, 2016. [4] Jakubiak-Lasocka, J., Lasocki, J., Badyda, A. J., The

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Level of Manipulation of Digital Recording Devices in Light of Introducing ERRU System in European Countries

References [1] Blecker, T., Kersten, W., Meyer, M., High-performance logistics: methods and technologies , Berlin 2009. [2] Rychter, M., Budowa i zastosowanie systemu tachografii cyfrowej , Warsaw 2010. [3] Furgel, I., Lemke, K., A review of the digital tachograph system , in: Lemke, K., Paar, Ch., Wolf, M., Embedded security in cars: security current and future automotive it applications, Birkhäuser 2006. [4] Desworte, Y., Quiquater, J. J., Gollmann, D., Meadows, C., Computer Security – ESORICS 98 , Proceedings of the 5 th European

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Emissions from Engines Fuelled with Biofuels

Abstract

In recent years, the interest in the use of renewable fuels in transport has increased. This is due to the European Union’s policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These fuels, in addition to the effect of reducing carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases, may increase the emissions of other exhaust components. The article describes the problems of pollutants emissions from the engine exhaust system, related to the use of biofuels in combustion engines or their additives in conventional fuels. The influence of the chemical composition of selected biofuels on the emissions properties of vehicles and their engines will be discussed. The tests results of engines fuelled with selected biofuels, carried out by the authors of the article, will be presented. These tests will be carried out on chassis dynamometer and engine test bench, in standard research tests used in measurements of pollutants emissions like NEDC, ESC, ETC, etc. Furthermore, selected operational parameters of vehicles and engines will be compared with biofuels and conventional fuels.

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Potential of Biomass-to-Fuel Conversion Technologies for Power and Means of Transport

Abstract

Reduction of CO2 emissions in Poland (excluding transport) should be related to a change in the structure of electricity production sources. Similar actions have been taken by many European countries. In 2017, in the European Union’s power industry, the largest emitters were dominated by coal-fired power plants in Germany (seven power plants). However, the leader of this ranking turned out to be the Belchatów power plant owned by the Polish Energy Group (PGE). Renewable energy is energy obtained from natural processes. It should be obtained in a way that would not cause a deficit of natural resources (renewed in a short time) to have a limited impact on the environment. The purpose of promoting and using renewable energy sources (RES) is to reduce the harmful effects of energy on the natural environment, primarily by limiting greenhouse gas emissions (water vapour, CO2, CH4, CFC, N2O, halon, ozone and industrial gases HFC, PFC, SF6). Biomass is the most widely used renewable energy source currently used. The study of the literature and comparison of the set parameters for different types of biomass in the given order shows that Virginia mallow has the highest usefulness for energy purposes. Considering the fact that both cashew and coconut (shells) cannot be grown due to the climate prevailing in Poland, Virginia mallow seems to be the best alternative for traditional fuels used in the energy sector in the analysed group. Virginia mallow has competitive properties to wood biomass and hard coal only significantly supercedes in terms of calorific value. The energy properties of Virginia mallow can additionally be improved as a result of the torrefaction process. In addition, in the literature on the subject, attention is paid to the fact that mallow may be grown on less-favoured soils and the process of its collection – in contrast to other such plants – does not require the use of specialized agricultural machinery.

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Geometrical Structure for Endoprosthesis Surface Lubrication and Wear Prognosis

Abstract

It can be stated that over the last ten years in the European Union, the number of bone fractures caused by osteoarthritis has increased twofold. More than 100,000 hip or knee joints in total were implanted in Germany during one year. Within ten years, 5% of them have failed by aseptic loosening. The non-invasive determination of friction forces and control of their values during lubrication of cartilage cells on the superficial layer of human joint surfaces before implantation has a significant but not sufficient impact on the observation of the early abrasive wear of the cartilage joint and development of osteoporosis. From this fact was drawn the inspiration for the performed investigations related to the endoprosthesis surface parameters because knowledge of the roughness of prosthesis surfaces and friction forces and their control methods permits provision of a necessary standard deviation of the gap height and finally information about the implantation possibility. This article has been prepared based on the objective of European Project UE Grant IRSES,612593, 2013-2016 to represent the methodology and goal of the idea described in and make a wider discussion possible on this subject for further developments during the realization. To the research methods and materials used in this article realization belong: Rank Taylor Hobson-Talyscan 150 Apparatus implemented by Talymap Expert and Microsoft Excel Computer Program connected with the Mathcad 15 Professional Program and a new semi-analytical methods of probabilistic and statistic prognosis applied for theory of hydrodynamic lubrication of the curvilinear orthogonal surface and coordinates extended to the friction and wear problems of the endoprosthesis surfaces during the exploitation.

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Digital Recording Devices is Element of Safety of the Road Transport

., Comment to the act on the transport road , Warsaw 2013. [7] Commission Regulation (EC) No. 561 / 2006 of the European Parliament and Advice ; 15 March 2006. [8] Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1360 / 2002 from 13 June 2002, Council regulation adapting for the seventh time to the technological progress (EWG) No. 3821 / 85 on recorders applied in the road transport , DZ. Urz. The EU L No. 207. [9] Commission Regulation (EWG) No. 3821 / 85 From 20 December 1985 on recorders applied in the transport . [10] Commission Regulation (EU) No 165/2014 of

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Use of Biofuels in a Compression-Ignition Engine – Comprehensive Technical and Economical Analysis

kémiai gyakorlatok , Budapest 2005. [5] BP World Energy Outlook , London 2012. [6] Shell energy scenarios to 2050 , Shell International BV, 2008. [7] European Commission Directorate-General for Energy in collaboration with Climate Action DG and Mobility and Transport DG, EU energy trends to 2030 — UPDATE 2009 , European Union, 2010, DOI:10.2833/21664, 2010. [8] International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2013 Renewable Energy Outlook , 2013. [9] European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy, EU renewable energy

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Analysis of the Impact of Changes in Flight Speed and Altitude on Emission Indexes of Pollutants in Jet Engine Exhausts

References [1] EASA, EEA, EUROCONTROL, European Aviation Environmental Report 2016 , online: www.eurocontrol.int/sites/default/files/publication/files/european-aviation-environmental-report-2016.pdf , 2016. [2] Filippone, A., Advanced Aircraft Flight Performance , Cambridge University Press., 2015. [3] Pawlak, M., Majka, A., Kuźniar, M., Pawluczy, J., Analysis of wind impact on emission of selected exhaust compounds in jet engines of a business jet aircraft in cruise phase , Combustion Engines, 173(2), pp. 55-60, 2018. [4] Pawlak, M

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Numerical Analysis of Heat Conduction Influence on SCR Aftertreatment Systems Efficiency

urea solution in SCR system , in: ASME 2004 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, No. 37467, pp. 165-170, 2004. [4] European Commision Regulation (EU) No 459/2012, 2012. [5] AVL FIRE 2014.2 Coupling Module CAE User Guide, 2014. [6] AVL FIRE 2014.2 Thin Walls Module User Guide, 2014. [7] AVL FIRE 2014.2 Spray Module User Guide, 2014. [8] AVL FIRE 2014.2 Porosity Module User Guide, 2014.

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