issue was discussed ( MTEESS 2016 ). In this paper, we will study the different elements included in the Swedish partial individual taxation reform in 1971 to identify the policy lessons this reform has for contemporary tax policy in the EuropeanUnion member states.
We will argue that one of the most important policy lessons from the Swedish experience is that a shift to individual taxation cannot be limited to technical changes in the tax system. It also needs to be elaborated within a family and social policy context that recognizes the correlation between women
This paper reports on an investigation of a recent decision by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in case C-48/13, Nordea Bank Denmark, concerning the Danish rules for reincorporation of losses from permanent establishments situated in European Union/ European Economic Area (EU/EEA) member states other than Denmark. The article includes comments on various EU tax law aspects of the case - namely the restriction test applied by the ECJ, the justifications brought forward by the intervening governments and the question of proportionality - and examines the consequences of the Danish tax law going forward.
dynamics of the international economics. The comparative aspects and results presented in this article are mostly based on the recent results of Anu Torkkeli’s doctoral thesis (June 2016, Hanken publications) Structuring Corporate Capital Gains Tax System in the EuropeanUnion - A Comparative Finnish Perspective Anu Torkkeli, Publications of Hanken School of Economics, Nr 296, Helsinki 2016. The academic opponent of Torkkeli’s thesis was professor Mattias Dahlberg from Uppsala. The co-author of this NTJ-article, professor Matti Kukkonen has worked as Anu Torkkeli
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social security systems, whereby the rule of non-aggregation of relevant laws would not be applicable to the tax. In this regard, the European Court of Justice has ruled that the national social security schemes in their entirety are subject to the application of the rules of the EuropeanUnion transnational coordination law. Here, the determining factor is the direct and sufficiently relevant coherence that a particular provision tax provision has to demonstrate with the laws that fall under the material scope of EU Regulation No. 1408/71 and now EU Regulation No. 883
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relation to others (see §2 - §4).
CSR and ethical business making as such are already on the agendas of many corporations, but also of law and policy framing institutions. For example, since the introduction of EU Directive 2006/46/EC (2006), all the listed companies in the EuropeanUnion are obliged to publish their CSR statements. What such statements exactly should entail is unclear. Therefore, the question still remains as to whether these published strategies can also be regarded as acting socially responsible.
In our opinion, a corporation engaging in CSR can
of development of sectors other than fisheries and agriculture slowed the recovery of economy, GDP contracted by 1.3% in 1967 and by 5.5% in 1969 ( Hagstofa Íslands 2019a ,b).
In 1970, Iceland joined the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and the national system of taxes and duties had to be revised. The then-existing tax system had been adapted to the needs of strong special interest groups, especially those involved in fisheries and agriculture. Icelandic agriculture based its existence largely on subventions. Fishing firms paid considerably lower taxes
) ; Swinkels (2010) ; Parolini (2009) (see Sections 1.2 and 5 ). In third countries and non-EU European Economic Area (EEA) countries such as Norway, national rules can be framed independently of the EU rules as their fiscal sovereignty is not bound by membership of the EuropeanUnion. Nevertheless, Norway has close ties to the EuropeanUnion under the EEA Agreement (see Section 6 ).
Within the EuropeanUnion and globally, different national VAT grouping schemes can give rise to complex problems relating to tax avoidance and fiscal competition. For example, this can
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European Commission, 2016, Taxation Trends in the EuropeanUnion. European Commission 2016 Taxation Trends in the EuropeanUnion
Federal Public Service Finance, 2016, Federal Tax Expenditures Report. Federal Public Service Finance 2016 Federal Tax Expenditures Report
Fuest, C., Peichl, A., and Siegloch, S, 2015, Do Higher Corporate Taxes Reduce Wages? IZA Discussion Paper No. 9606. Fuest C. Peichl A. Siegloch S 2015 Do Higher Corporate Taxes Reduce Wages