through the orientation of construction and the density of construction; and “greening” of the city, where greening enables the integration of society with nature ( Dagmar et al., 2017 ).
Construction density is one of the most important factors and criteria for urban development and regulation planning. Many studies emphasise a strong correlation between urban density and sustainability, especially in relation to transport ( Newman, Kensworthy, 1989 ; Næss, 2012 ) with numerous benefits ( Van der Waals, 2000 ; Burton, 2001 ; Gordon and Richardson, 1997 ; Thinh et
, Nigeria between 1927 and 1960. He argued that there is the absence of both government and native authority in the provision of social services such as water. Gabriel (2005) examines the public–private partnership (PPP) and water-supply provision in urban Africa: a case study of Congo-Brazzaville. The study suggests that to achieve the shift from a supply-driven to a demand-led orientation in water supply, PPPs must take into account the economic and social impacts of diverse consumption patterns, and they must also assess consumers’ needs. Three key elements, namely
reverses the traditional theory in economic geography that people follow jobs, and instead suggests that the creative class is highly mobile and can be attracted to a place, as they prefer locations that are highly developed, have a wide range of amenities and are tolerant towards different types of lifestyle and personal orientation ( Florida, 2002 ; Sacco et al., 2014 ). Talent can thus be attracted to places, usually advanced post-industrial cities or ‘creative cities’ and, once there, these pools of talent will attract high-technology industries, promote innovation