in diferent objects and phenomena (Stachak 2006, in Szarucki 2010 ). The result of conducting comparative research is, therefore, the finding of the identity of the things compared (Pieter 1967). The content of the chapters of the “old” and “new” core curriculum of general education in geography, which concern issues related to the place of the Earth in the Universe, orientation in the field ( Table 1 ), and the construction of the atmosphere were subjected to the research. The comparison of the sections of the “place of the Earth in the Universe” and “orientation
Konrad Podawca, Krzysztof Karsznia and Agata Pawłat Zawrzykraj
The increasing urban tendency, most often reflected in the absorption of arable land into city areas, is an inevitable but ongoing process. According to the French Alliance for Cities and Territorial Development (PFVT 2019) , between now and 2030, cities will be inhabited by 80% of the earth’s population, which is over 4 billion dwellers. The growth of cities is, therefore, inevitable; hence, the process of appropriate urban planning takes on significance. Around cities, there are temporary developing areas – specific zones between the city and
) . Firstly, georeferencing of the old maps was done based on 41 place marks collected from Google Earth using the affine transformation model. Valid place marks on the old maps were only considered after a cross check performed based on relative locations, i.e. distance and direction between two places, as well as the relative locations of those points from famous locations such as Coochbehar and Jalpaiguri town. A considerable area of the studied spatial extent was labelled as Royal Estate during colonial rule in India. The presence of popular archaeological sites and
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. 1964 ; Michniewicz et al. 2016 ) and honeycombs and tafoni on sandstone tors ( Vítek 1981a ). Nevertheless, we can observe abundant evidence of degradation of tors under surface conditions ( Figs 10 and 11 ), which is difficult to date but clearly attests to ongoing tor decay. The patterns of tor degradation are dependent on the structural conditions of bedrock, mainly the orientation and the density of discontinuities. The former dictates the preferential direction of breakdown whereas the latter controls the size of the detached rock fragments, which may vary
Kristin Vreys, Marian-Daniel Iordache, Jan Biesemans and Koen Meuleman
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In the Crimean plain, the soils are more fertile, grape bushes have strong growth and are planted using the rarer ordinary (trellis) method. The distance between the rows is 2 metres, with a row of 1.5 metres between the bushes, and 3,333 bushes per hectare. This zone of Crimea, in comparison with other zones, is colder, so for good grape ripening the earth needs to be warmed by the sun to a greater extent: the vineyard rows often run from North to South (with rows being exposed to the hottest rays at noon). This vineyard orientation is often used in the
Omid M. Ghoochani, Azadeh Bakhshi, Matthew Cotton, Azar Hashemi Nejad and Mansour Ghanian
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