). Most recently, this orientation has been further supported by the flagship initiative "Resource Efficient Europe" ( European Commission 2011a ) as well as the then following "Roadmap for a Resource Efficient Europe" ( European Commission 2011b ).
In this context, also questions of settlement development and the thus connected use of land, energy and material are of crucial significance. The sustainability strategy of the German Federal Government identifies the support of a sustainable settlement development—under the headline "Reducing Land Use"—as a focal point
Analysing Key Socio-Technical Systems for the Vulnerability and Resilience of Cities
Marc Wolfram and Rico Vogel
degree of normative orientation. Yet, they equally recognise the value of such vague concepts as boundary objects for communication and coordination across disciplines, providing a common perspective for analysis and action (cf. Becker 2010 ). Looking at the scientific trajectories of vulnerability and resilience it seems that a focus on cities and information systems is likely to benefit from the latter quality, while also encouraging first steps towards more integrated approaches.
2.1 Identifying and Assessing Urban Vulnerabilities
The broader scientific
centres, with their own local administrations, universities and shopping centres, linked to the capital by a new network of public transport routes, including the RER regional express rail network.
In 1967, the government enacted an outline land law (the LOF, or loi d’orientation foncière ) intended to develop an ambitious planning policy. It specified that each commune would have its own urban planning and development plan ( schéma d’aménagement et d’urbanisme , SDAU) and land use plan (plan d’occupation des sols , POS), and facilitated the creation of zones d
of actors who create and act on the values: individuals, epistemic communities, public service orientations, crowds. Each resulting type of values can be further explained.
Individual stakeholder oriented values consist of classifications, frames, priorities, beliefs, and perceptions of individual actors. There is great variety in the themes in which an individual stakeholder is interested, but usually these values apply to a relatively limited geospatial scale or even a particular location. Examples are individual farmers who may express the need to work close