. Proc. of the 25 th Symp. Eur. Assoc. Rem. Sens. Laborat. Porto, Portugal, 6-9 June 2005. Global Developments in Environmental Earth Observation from Space.
Mitri G.H., Gitas I.Z., 2002. The development of an object-oriented classification model for operational burned area mapping on the Mediterranean island of Thasos using Landsat TM images. Proc. Intern. Conf. Forest Fire Research, Luso - Coimbra, Portugal, 18-23 November, 2002.
Neubert M., 2001. Segment-based analysis of high resolution satellite and laser
). Most recently, this orientation has been further supported by the flagship initiative "Resource Efficient Europe" ( European Commission 2011a ) as well as the then following "Roadmap for a Resource Efficient Europe" ( European Commission 2011b ).
In this context, also questions of settlement development and the thus connected use of land, energy and material are of crucial significance. The sustainability strategy of the German Federal Government identifies the support of a sustainable settlement development—under the headline "Reducing Land Use"—as a focal point
Analysing Key Socio-Technical Systems for the Vulnerability and Resilience of Cities
Marc Wolfram and Rico Vogel
degree of normative orientation. Yet, they equally recognise the value of such vague concepts as boundary objects for communication and coordination across disciplines, providing a common perspective for analysis and action (cf. Becker 2010 ). Looking at the scientific trajectories of vulnerability and resilience it seems that a focus on cities and information systems is likely to benefit from the latter quality, while also encouraging first steps towards more integrated approaches.
2.1 Identifying and Assessing Urban Vulnerabilities
The broader scientific
centres, with their own local administrations, universities and shopping centres, linked to the capital by a new network of public transport routes, including the RER regional express rail network.
In 1967, the government enacted an outline land law (the LOF, or loi d’orientation foncière ) intended to develop an ambitious planning policy. It specified that each commune would have its own urban planning and development plan ( schéma d’aménagement et d’urbanisme , SDAU) and land use plan (plan d’occupation des sols , POS), and facilitated the creation of zones d
of actors who create and act on the values: individuals, epistemic communities, public service orientations, crowds. Each resulting type of values can be further explained.
Individual stakeholder oriented values consist of classifications, frames, priorities, beliefs, and perceptions of individual actors. There is great variety in the themes in which an individual stakeholder is interested, but usually these values apply to a relatively limited geospatial scale or even a particular location. Examples are individual farmers who may express the need to work close
through the orientation of construction and the density of construction; and “greening” of the city, where greening enables the integration of society with nature ( Dagmar et al., 2017 ).
Construction density is one of the most important factors and criteria for urban development and regulation planning. Many studies emphasise a strong correlation between urban density and sustainability, especially in relation to transport ( Newman, Kensworthy, 1989 ; Næss, 2012 ) with numerous benefits ( Van der Waals, 2000 ; Burton, 2001 ; Gordon and Richardson, 1997 ; Thinh et
, Nigeria between 1927 and 1960. He argued that there is the absence of both government and native authority in the provision of social services such as water. Gabriel (2005) examines the public–private partnership (PPP) and water-supply provision in urban Africa: a case study of Congo-Brazzaville. The study suggests that to achieve the shift from a supply-driven to a demand-led orientation in water supply, PPPs must take into account the economic and social impacts of diverse consumption patterns, and they must also assess consumers’ needs. Three key elements, namely
reverses the traditional theory in economic geography that people follow jobs, and instead suggests that the creative class is highly mobile and can be attracted to a place, as they prefer locations that are highly developed, have a wide range of amenities and are tolerant towards different types of lifestyle and personal orientation ( Florida, 2002 ; Sacco et al., 2014 ). Talent can thus be attracted to places, usually advanced post-industrial cities or ‘creative cities’ and, once there, these pools of talent will attract high-technology industries, promote innovation