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Á. Daragó, M. Szabó, K. Hrács, A. Takács and P. Nagy


The application of Trichoderma spp. for the suppression of plant-parasitic nematode populations is a promising tool in biological control. Sixteen strains of six Trichoderma species (T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. rossicum, T. tomentosum, T. virens and T. asperellum) were tested in vitro in order to identify the most appropriate strains to control the dagger nematode Xiphinema index. Mortality assays revealed that the strains of the widely investigated T. harzianum species have caused significant reduction of X. index populations, although T. harzianum strains were not the most efficient among all the tested fungi. Certain T. virens and T. atroviride strains and T. rossicum have triggered faster and higher mortality. Generally, our data indicate that Trichoderma species have innate ability to decrease X. index population. Furthermore, as we had difficulties with maintaining X. index in vitro, we successfully used a newly developed method to keep X. index specimens viable during the experiments.

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Y. Zeng, W. Ye, Z. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yong, Y. Huang, K. Zhao, H. Liang and J. Kerns

Introduction The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 belonging to the family Longidoridae represents ectoparasitic root nematodes commonly known as the dagger nematode. There are approximately 260 nominal species in the genus to date ( Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al ., 2012 ). They are typically divided into two groups, namely X. americanum -group with about 50 species and non- X. americanum -group ( Loof & Luc, 1990 ; Lamberti et al ., 2000 ). The genus Xiphinema includes phytopathogenic species that damage a large number of wild and cultivated plants through

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Aleksandra Petrovic Kitic and Slobodan Jankovic

References 1. Chan GW, Ungvari GS, Shek DT, Leung Dagger JJ.Hospital and community-based care for patients with chronic schizophrenia in Hong Kong- quality of life and its correlates. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003; 38(4): 196-203. 2. Salome F, Petitjean F, Germain C, Demant JC. The subjective quality of life of patients with schizophrenia: influence of psychopathology and patients’ expectations. A comparative study. Encephale 2004; 30(1): 60-8. 3. Rossler W, Salize HJ, Cucchiaro G

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S. Kumari

[1] Barsi, L. (1989): The Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in Yugoslavia. I. Nematol. Medit., 17: 97–108 [2] Barsi, L. (1996): New records of Xiphinema dentatum Sturhan (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Serbia with description of the male. Nematol. Medit., 24: 73–78 [3] Kumari, S., Decraemer, W. (2008): First report of the dagger nematode Xiphinema dentatum (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in a deciduous forest in the Czech Republic. Plant Dis., 92: 1370

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V. Repasi, A. Agostinelli, P. Nagy, M. Coiro, K. Hecker and F. Lamberti

): Nematodes of the family Longidoridae from forest nurseries in Bulgaria. II. The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913. Helminthology, 32: 46–58 [37] Repasi, V., Nagy, P., Coiro, M. I., Agostinelli, A., Lamberti, F. (2006): ]Novel data on the distribution of dagger nematodes in Hungary.] Növényvédelem, 42: 655–661 [38] Samota, D., Ivezic, M., Raspudic, E. (1994): Ecology of Xiphinema vuittenezi and Xiphinema pachtaicum in vineyards of north-east Croatia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 24: 375–381

Open access

Kerem Yildirim Simsek

loyalty, satisfaction and encouragement, which is observed in the entire service sector ( Anderson et al., 1994 ; Anderson and Sullivan, 1993 ; Dagger and Sweeney, 2007 ; Fornell, 1992 ). In this context, Martinez et al. (2010) determined that one of the most important problems being faced by modern sport marketeers was the service quality providing the following arguments: the proxy measure of management performance; an important factor in positioning the company; and an essential determinant of customer behaviour variables such as customer loyalty. It

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V. Peneva, G. Urek, S. Lazarova, S. Širca, M. Knapič, M. Elshishka and D. Brown

nematodes. Rev. Nematol., 6: 133–141 [49] Tsvetkov, I., Choleva, B., Yankulova, M., Colova, V., Atanasov, A. (2003): Evaluation of transgenic grapes tolerance toward grapevine fanleaf virus. Proceedings of the 14th ICVG Conference, 231–232 [50] Urek, G., Širca, S., Karssen, G. (2003a): A review of plant-parasitic nematodes in Slovenia. Nematology, 5: 391–403 [51] Urek, G., Širca, S., Kox, L., Karssen, G. (2003b): First report of the dagger nematode

Open access

M. Groza, S. Lazarova, C. Costache, F. Luca, I. Rosca, E. Fanelli and V. Peneva

:// [13] Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, C., Rius, J. E. P., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Landa, B. B., Castillo, P. (2011): Prevalence, polyphasic identification, and molecular phylogeny of dagger and needle nematodes infesting vineyards in southern Spain. Eur. J. Plant Pathol., 129(3): 427–453. DOI: 10.1007/s10658-010-9705-y [14] He, Y., Subbotin S., Rubtsova, T. V., Lamberti, F., Brown, D. J. F., Moens, M. (2005): A molecular phylogenetic approach to