), the Ronald Reagan Centennial celebrations were used to shore up the American alliance in CentralandEasternEurope. Unlike that display, the Centennial was not driven by current U.S. government officials, and it articulated responses to threats beyond terrorism. Ostensibly a year’s worth of programming to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Reagan’s birth in 2011, the Centennial’s message was a transatlantic call for standing firm against not only terrorism but also Russian encroachment on the region. This article argues that because of the status of its drivers and
exceptional” ( Kaya 2015 , 452). This is debatable or even disputable for western scholars, however, his criticism can be fully applied to the scarce number of academic works on Islamophobia issued so far in CentralandEasternEurope (CEE).
* * *
As for the CEE context, apart from Russia, post-Soviet areas and the Balkans, there was scarce evidence of scholarly interest and literature on Islamophobia there until recently. Ivan Kalmar commented on the very recent situation as follows:
Although the severity of the Islamophobia evidenced in the response of the political
: experience of Canadian parties’. Party Politics . Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 211-224.
Chiru, M. and Gherghina, S. (2012). ‘Keeping the doors closed: leadership selection in post-communist Romania’. East European Politics & Societies . Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 510-537.
Chiru, M. and Gherghina, S. (2014). ‘Let’s not risk too much: the selection of party leaders in Romania’. In: Pilet, J. B., Cross, W. eds. The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies . London: Routledge, pp.141-155.
Colomé, G. and Nieto L. L. (1993). ‘The
-asia/poland/report-poland/ (accessed 2/6/2018). While at first glance, the religious affiliation of the population of the four countries differs dramatically, ranging from those characterized as predominantly religious (Poland and Slovakia) to those understood as secular (the Czech Republic and Hungary), See, for example, “Religious Belief and National Belonging in CentralandEasternEurope,” Pew Research Centre, 10 May 2017, http://www.pewforum.org/2017/05/10/religious-affiliation/ (accessed 4/6/2018). the political rhetoric “justifying” the fears frequently includes a claim to be upholding
, Religion and Culture in Postsecular Society (Faenza, 13-14 May 2011)”, PECOB—Portal of East Centraland Balkan Europe . http://www.pecob.eu/flex/cm/pages/ServeAttachment.php/L/EN/D/7%252Fd%252F1%252FD.1f1f8fddc2dd41df40ac/P/BLOB%3AID%3D3100 Stoeckl Kristina. 2011 Working paper “Defining the Postsecular.” In Document Collection of the Italian-Russian Workshop “Politics, Religion and Culture in Postsecular Society (Faenza, 13-14 May 2011)”, PECOB—Portal of East Centraland Balkan Europe http://www.pecob.eu/flex/cm/pages/ServeAttachment.php/L/EN/D/7%252Fd%252F1
Appelbaum, (2018): A Warning from Europe: The Worst is yet to Come, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/10/poland-polarization/568324/
Berend, Iván (1997): CentralandEasternEurope 1944–1993 , Cambridge University Press
Berend, Iván (2010): Europe since 1980 , Cambridge University Press
Biro-Nagy, András (2017): Illiberal democracy in Hungary. The social background and practical steps of building an illiberal state. In: Morillas, Pol (ed.): Illiberal democracies in the EU. The Visegrad Group and the risk of
Bodnar, A. & Bojarski, L. (2011) ‘Judicial Independence in Poland’, in Anja Seibert-Fohr (ed.), Judicial Independence in Transition , Springer.
Bobek, Michal 2007. ‘Iudex Ex Machina : Institutional and Mental Transitions of CentralandEasternEuropean Judiciairies’, in Coman Ramona and Jean-Michel De Waele (eds.), Judicial Reforms in CentralandEasternEuropean Countries , Brugge: Vanden Broele.
Brusis, M. 2005. European Union enlargement and the Europeanization of EasternEurope: research puzzles and policy issues. In: Z
Adamczyk D. (2009), Starzenie się społeczeństwa polskiego wyzwaniem dla zrównoważonego rozwoju. [in:] Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej, No, 106, 105–113.
Arundel A., Casali L., Hollanders H. (2015), How European public sector agencies innovate: The use of bottom-up, policy-dependent and knowledge-scanning innovation methods . [in:] Research Policy, No. 44, 1271–1282.
Austen A. (2016), Kapitał społeczny w procesie współtworzenia usług publicznych . [in:] Zarządzanie i Finanse, Journal of Management and Finance, 14, No. 3
Plan for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion 2020: a new dimension of active inclusion . Warszawa: Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej. Available at < http://www.mpips.gov.pl/download/gfx/mpips/pl/defaultopisy/8664/2/1/KPPUiWS_1707_na_RM_.pdf > [Accessed on: February 20, 2016].
MPiPS (2015). Sprawozdanie z realizacji działań na rzecz ludzi bezdomnych w województwach w roku 2014 oraz wyniki Ogólnopolskiego badania liczby osób bezdomnych (21/22 styczeń 2015) . Warszawa: Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej.
MRR (2012). Development Strategy