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Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series

The Journal of Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun

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Agata Frankowska, Izabella Łęcka and Jan Frankowski

1 Introduction Poland, along with other Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, has been recognised as an emerging donor since the new millennium. The literature concerning Polish development assistance is rich, though it is not diversified in terms of the range of topics. Since the accession of Poland to the European Union, foreign institutions, non-governmental organisations and individual scientists have been analysing the Polish development cooperation system mainly from the perspective of the Visegrad Group countries ( Drążkiewicz-Grodzicka, 2013

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Cletus Famous Nwankwo

connected and central to these divisions ( Zarycki, 2000 ; Johnston, 2015 ). The basis of geographers’ analysis of electoral cleavages has been the model developed by Lipset and Rokkan (1967) which argues that there exist age-long divisions between assemblies of voters, with political parties mobilised on either side of the cleavage. This theory proposes that it was shared experiences in the political histories of the Western European countries upon which the thesis is developed that structured the political system into four types of cleavages: between the centre and

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Temidayo Gabriel Apata

structured into three sectors, namely: the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (SPP) responsible for handling and preventing cases of embezzlement and bribery, the Central Commission for Disciplinary Inspection (CCDI) to check corruption among political elites, and the Ministry of Supervision (MOS) to restrain corruption and maladministration within the civil service ( Keyuan, 2003 ; UNDP, 1999; Glynn et al ., 1997). Table 6 Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Corruption Control and Government Efficiency in Percentile Rank and Governance Score Corruption