describe the evolution of winery landscapes in Europe, while taking into consideration the Mediterranean Basin, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia. The article is an initial attempt to analyze the expansion of winery landscapes and to identify some of the regularities in their transformations on the basis of the remaining traces and signs that are present in the landscape as well as in the material and non-material culture of local societies in selected areas. Traces refer here to fragments, remnants, scraps of space, but also to the extent of winery
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In the paper the influence of atmospheric circulation on selected dangerous weather phenomena in Europe in the year 2000 has been presented. Dangerous weather phenomena include: 30 days with thunderstorms in Poland and 26 examples of such phenomena in Europe (tornados, strong winds, thunderstorms, torrential rains, floods, etc.).
The NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation) served to determine the character of the circulation that influenced the occurrence of catastrophic phenomena in Western, Central and Southern Europe. The J. Lityński classification of circulation types was used to thunderstorms occurring in Poland only. Most catastrophic phenomena during the positive NAO phase (predominance of zonal circulation) happened in Western and Central Europe. During the negative NAO phase (predominance of meridional circulation) the regions of the Mediterranean Basin were more frequently affected. In the case of thunderstorms in Poland in the year under investigation (2000) their occurrence was related to the inflow of air masses from the northern sector.
Storms in the European part of the Mediterranean Sea Basin are characterized in the paper. Data on storm days comes from the years 1986-2008, from fourteen stations located on the coast and on islands of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Valencia, Palma de Majorca, Marseille, Ajaccio – Corsica, Cagliari – Sardinia, Palermo – Sicily, Naples, Luqa – Malta, Thessaloniki, Athens, Souda – Crete, Rhodes Airport – Rhodes and Larnaca – Cyprus). The greatest number of storm days was noted in Corsica (870 - on the average 37,8 per year) and the least in Gibraltar (371 – 16,1). In most of the examined stations storms took place most frequently in the fall (from 19 to 46%). The smallest number of storm days was observed in winter (western and central part of the region) and in summer (eastern part). From a year-to-year analysis of storm days, it was found that their trend, at almost at all the stations, is negative. The strongest negative trend was observed in Valencia, Naples and Cagliari (-8,5 days/10 years). A growing trend, reaching 3 storm days/10 years, was only found in Cyprus.
Irena Tsermegas, Maciej Dłużewski, Katarzyna Biejat and Adam Szynkiewicz
Acheson P. E., 1997. Does the "economic explanation" work? Settlement, agriculture and erosion in the territory of Halieis in the Late Classical-Early Hellenistic period. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology , 10, 165-190.
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Bailey, B, Billeter, R
Quite considerable attention has been devoted to the topic of macro-regional differentiation of the world, but it is a term which is defined differently by almost everyone. Differentiation of the world is mentioned by the media almost every day, while the divisions used have little if any objective – let alone scientific – foundation. There are, for example, the terms Near East, Middle East, Far East and Central Europe. The latter is quite frequently used in Czechia. Alongside those provided by with geographers, various concepts of
played an important role in the war between the ruling powers of the Mediterranean. So detailed maps were created to represent and identify the city in detail.
Famagusta was surrounded by roughly rectangular stone fortifications and a defensive moat, to the east of which was the harbour. The city walls and the harbour played an important role in the city’s formation and identity. During the Venetian era, the government focused on the reconstruction of the fortification of the city. Today’s fortification took its final shape in this era, with important additions such
, M 2005, Typologia gospodarstw agroturystycznych jako determinanta rozwoju usług , Wydawnictwo Politechniki Białostockiej, Białystok.
Jefferson, A 1991, ‘Demographics, youth and tourism’, Tourism Management , vol. 12.1, pp.73–75.
Kamińska, W & Mularczyk, M 2014, Baza agroturystyczna w świetle oczekiwań młodzieży akademickiej. Wyniki badań ankietowych , in print.
Kastenholz, E, Davis, D & Paul, G 1999, ‘Segmenting tourism in rural areas: The case of North and Central Portugal’, Journal of Travel Research , vol. 37.4, pp. 353