Anna Grzesiakowska, Przemysław Baran, Marta Kuchta-Gładysz and Olga Szeleszczuk
species and subspecies. The northern white-breasted hedgehog comprises two species. The first is Erinaceus europaeus , known as the western European hedgehog. It is found mainly in northern Europe and Scandinavia, but also in central Asia ( 1 ). The second species is the eastern European hedgehog ( Erinaceus roumanicus ) ( 1 ), known as the northern white-breasted hedgehog. It inhabits central and eastern Europe (Poland, Austria, Ukraine, and Russia), the peninsulas of the Baltic Sea, the Balkans, and north-eastern Turkey ( 3 ). Taxonomically, it was originally
Natalia Mazur-Panasiuk, Jacek Żmudzki and Grzegorz Woźniakowski
inactivate ASFV and these products should be considered safe.
Indirect contact – arthropods as mechanical vectors
ASFV is a tick-borne virus; therefore ticks as well as pigs may host the virus. Nevertheless, so far only soft ticks of .Ornithodoros spp. have been found to facilitate virus replication, and they act as the main virus reservoirs in Africa where they participate in the so-called sylvatic ASFV transmission cycle between ticks and wild suids. The geographical distribution of these ticks is limited to Africa and southern Europe (Mediterranean countries
Z. Mojžišová, P. Drzewnioková, E. Bocková, B. Vargová, V. Majláthová, I. Majláth, T. Csank and J. Pistl
1. Bakonyi, T. E., Ferenczi, K., Erdelyi, O., Kutasi, T., Csorgo, B., Seidel, H., et al., 2013: Explosive spread of a neuroinvasive lineage 2 West Nile virus in Central Europe, 2008/2009. Vet. Microbiol. , 165, 61—70.
2. Biernat, B., Karbowiak, G., Werszko, J., Stanczak, J., 2014: Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from natural and urban environment, Poland. Exp. Appl. Acarol. , 64, 543—551.
3. Csank, T., Bhide, K., Bencurova, E., Dolinska, S., Drzewniokova, P., Major, P., et
Tanveer Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Akhtar Ali, Asif Nadeem, Zia Ur Rehman, Muneeb M. Musthafa and Faiz MMT Marikar
-Keraby F.E., Blasi M., Mohamed M.M.: Biodiversity in Mediterranean buffalo using two microsatellite multiplexes. Livest Sci 2008, 114, 341–346.
11. FAO: Animal production and health guidelines. Molecular genetic characterization of Animal Genetic Resources. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy, 2011.
12. GOP: GEconomic Survey, 2006–2007. Economic Affairs Division, Government of Pakistan, Isalamabad 2007.
13. GOP: Economic Survey, 2007–2008. Economic Affairs Division
Oleanders are tolerant evergreen plants which originated from Mediterranean countries. Nerium oleander is a small evergreen tree with a wide geographical and ecological distribution. Its flowers grow in clusters in terminal branches and display various colours including yellow, pink, red, peach, and white. It was reported that all parts of these plants can be toxic to insects, different animals, and humans ( 18 ). Oleander poisoning is not infrequent in domestic animals and man, and there have been some cases of accidental toxicosis in
largely on the climate conditions, prevailing in a given zone, region, or country. This means that dissimilar health problems occur in fish cultured in the Mediterranean Sea, in continental Europe and in Northern European countries. For example, in Scandinavian countries, one of the biggest health problems is posed by invasion of copepods and amoebic gill disease (AGD). Meanwhile, in Central Europe, infections caused by Aeromonas spp. are the most common among bacterial fish diseases, causing motile aeromonas septicaemia (MAS), motile aeromonas infection (MAI), and