to 40 ( Schüepp 1979 ) or even 80 different predefined types (as in the classification developed by the Central Institute of Meteorology in Vienna). Most of the classifications used in Europe have between 9 and 40 types, while the most popular ones are those with 9, 18, or 27 types ( Philipp et al. 2010 ).
According to Philipp et al. (2010) , circulation type classification schemes can be divided into two main groups: subjective and automated. Subjective classifications include the very well-known Grosswetterlagen classification ( Hess & Brezowsky 1952
describe the evolution of winery landscapes in Europe, while taking into consideration the Mediterranean Basin, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia. The article is an initial attempt to analyze the expansion of winery landscapes and to identify some of the regularities in their transformations on the basis of the remaining traces and signs that are present in the landscape as well as in the material and non-material culture of local societies in selected areas. Traces refer here to fragments, remnants, scraps of space, but also to the extent of winery
The paper deals with an analysis the growing presence of international retail enterprises in the Central European countries of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. Results of the research show that there are differences between the Polish market and the remaining two. The differences are in the scale of investments, the investors’ geographic origin, the number of stores within the network of the so called modern distribution channels (hyper- and supermarkets and discount stores). The diversity of location strategies used by Western European retail enterprises in the Central European markets is also shown, beginning with the methods of entering new markets (organic growth, acquisition of existing chains, franchising) and ending on the degree of concentration of retail stores in the largest cities of the three countries.
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The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme has been introduced in the Central and Eastern European countries since the beginning of the 1990s. Developed in the 1960s by the International Baccalaureate Organisation in Geneva, it became since then an important part of the world educational system. The number of schools authorised by the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) has increased considerably. This paper aims to present the history of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in nine countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia).
Eugeniusz Romer maintained that the notion of Central Europe, introduced at the end of the 19th century by German geographers was of a distinct geopolitical character. The thesis that Poland is situated in a transitional zone between the Western and the Eastern Europe denies Poland the right to an independent political existence. Romer’s opinion was that the location of Poland is characterised by its bridge-like situation between the Baltic and the Black Seas. This location determines the geopolitical identity of Poland as well as its rights to independence. Romer’s arguments, supported by cartographic, demographic and ethnographic research became the basis for the determination of the area and the borders of Poland at the peace conference in Paris (1919 – 1920).
recalled how both political and natural conditions are of relevance here. The policies pursued in South and Central America – whose consequences included new investment in industry, agriculture and infrastructure in hitherto-underutilized regions nevertheless enjoying greater development potential – were the result of overlap between several different implemented policies and programs of development, dating in particular from the 1950s onwards. While it is true to say that planning bodies took their lead from developed countries (in Europe, in particular) and were
. The diversification of growth factors through the development of individual entrepreneurship represents one of the basic challenges facing this economy. Comparably to governments of countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the years between 1990 and 2000, those of Central Asian countries currently seek factors of economic activation of the population in the development of individual agriculture and the service sector, which is also related to tourism ( Erdavletov 2015 ).
Kazakhstan, the largest country in Central Asia, illustrates the problems stemming from the
address issues of the geography of tourism and border studies. It is important to underline that Poser’s (1939) study of tourism in the Giant mountains/Riesengebirge (Karkonosze/Krkonoše in Polish and Czech) is considered the first study to analyze the geography of tourism in a CentralEuropean (and German-speaking) context. Poser argued that tourism takes place in geographical space to create its own particular type of cultural landscape in the process ( Kreisel 2004 ). The Riesengebirge/Giant Mountains had a very similar framework or context to the Jizera Mountains