Alexander Hijzen, Pedro S. Martins and Jante Parlevliet
Collective bargaining is an important feature of labour markets, especially in Continental Europe where collective agreements (CAs) typically cover more than three quarters of the workforce. Collective bargaining provides voice to workers, and in doing so, has the potential to enhance working conditions, increase productivity, reduce inequality and help minimise industrial conflict (e.g. OECD, 2018 ). At the same time, collective bargaining has sometimes been associated with wage drift or wage rigidity, with adverse consequences for employment
The reception and labor market integration of refugees is one of the most pressing and important issues facing Europe today. The recent influx of asylum seekers also makes it one of the most contentious and hotly debated issues of our time. However, there is only a limited body of research looking at how refugees are faring in the European labor markets ( Bakker et al. 2016 ; Bevelander and Pendakur 2014 ; Bratsberg et al. 2017 ; Fasani et al. 2017 ; Luik et al. 2016 ; Rea et al. 2014 ; Ruiz and Vargas-Silva 2017 , 2018; Sarvimäki 2017
transactional sex employment. However, reporting bias may be correlated with age (or marriage), raising additional concerns about how to interpret the response to this survey question. Three factors suggest that reporting bias may be low. First, the survey enumerators emphasized to respondents at the beginning of the entire survey and again at the beginning of the section on risky sexual behavior (including transactional sex) that their responses were completely confidential. At the beginning of the survey, enumerators stated, “I am working with the Central Statistical Office
Pablo de Pedraza, Stefano Visintin, Kea Tijdens and Gábor Kismihók
Einav, L.; J. D. Levi (2013): The Data Revolution and Economic Analyses. NBER Economic Papers Series, Paper 19035. http://www.nber.org/papers/w19035
Einav L. Levi J. D. 2013 The Data Revolution and Economic Analyses NBER Economic Papers Series, Paper 19035 http://www.nber.org/papers/w19035
Fabo, B.; M. Beblavý; K. Lenaerts (2017): The importance of foreign language skills in the labour markets of Central and Eastern Europe: assessment based on data from online job portals. Empirica 44(3), 487-508. 10.1007/s10663-017-9374-6
UK policy advice regarding minimum wage impacts.
Specifically, we conduct a simple difference-in-differences analysis of the impacts on employment and hours of both the NMW and NLW introductions, with the RoI as the comparison group, exploiting comparable cross-sectional unit record data available quarterly in both jurisdictions from the Quarterly Labor Force Survey (QLFS; NI) and the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS; which became the Irish Labor Force Survey as of 2017Q3 [Central Statistics Office, 2018]; RoI). The RoI did not introduce an NMW until
displacements due to weather shocks and natural disasters that plagued Central American countries (earthquakes in San Salvador, hurricane Mitch). He finds that a 1% increase in recent immigration to a given US State will increase imports to that State by 1.2% and its exports to the migrants’ home country by 0.5%. In examining the potential channel for the trade-creating effect of migration, he finds evidence for both the information and the preference effect. Distinguishing between differentiated (“luxury goods”) and homogeneous goods (“necessity” goods) and assuming that the
development and widespread adoption of the Internet and other forms of digital communication has led to a significant increase in the supply and storage of digital information, including in central locations (cloud computing), which allow the comparison and analysis of significant amounts of data for statistical purposes that are necessary to develop tools based on AI principles.
Finally, the drop in capital costs for digital technologies has significantly lowered barriers of entry for start-ups, making it less necessary than in the past to mobilize huge amounts of
/( w - 𝜏 )).
4.1 Impact of the unemployment compensation b on unemployment duration
Baseline model [BM]
In the left panel of Fig. 1 , when b is nil, the agent devotes a high effort a to the subsistence activity. When b increases, the income effect dominates the substitution effect , which implies that the agent devotes less effort to subsistence. In the central panel of Fig. 1 , the quantity of job search effort s , as expected, monotonically decreases with b . Finally, in the right panel of Fig. 1 , P ( s , a ) is hump shaped. When b
Williams, C.C. (2010), “Evaluating the nature of undeclared work in South-Eastern Europe”, Employee Relations, Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 212 - 226.
Williams, C.C. (2013), “Evaluating cross-national variations in the extent and nature of informal employment in the European Union”, Industrial Relations Journal, Vol. 44 No. 5-6, pp. 479-94.
Williams, C.C. (2014a) “Explaining cross-national variations in the size of the shadow economy in Central and Eastern Europe”, Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 241