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Western and CentralEurope; the academic and political challenges to multiculturalism; the 2005 UNESCO Convention on Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression and the increasing importance and centrality of ICD to UNESCO (for example, from 2002 UNESCO documents reference “ICD for peace”); the UN’s International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures 2010 and 2011–2020 as the Decade of Interreligious Dialogue and Cooperation for Peace; the influx of migrants and refugees from the Middle East and Africa, particularly since 2011; and the ongoing
. However, over the past 50 years, (West) Germany has received almost 30 million immigrants from around the world, including ethnic Germans from other parts of Europe, many of whom permanently settled in the country. While about 15 million of these immigrants were ethnic Germans, half were non-German nationals. Out of this, almost 3 million of these non-national guestworkers recruited during these years ended up remaining in Germany (Green 2003). However, Germany has historically denied that it is a country of immigration (Wilpert 2010; Martin 1994 ) despite the fact
political ideology that ended up dominating globally through international agents such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), EuropeanCentral Bank (ECB) and the World Bank. The main doctrine of neoliberalism is that human societies are better served by the emancipation of individual entrepreneurialism in a framework of strong private property rights, free markets and free trade ( Harvey, 2007 : 2). States must act as guarantors of these and intervene only in protecting free markets and in creating them where they are not present (e.g. in the provision of education
conviction that “Islam is the answer” to virtually all of the problems bedevilling the modern world. This has its origins in the original slogan of the Muslim Brotherhood – “al-islam huwwa al-hal” – which referred to the central ideological premise put forward by the Brotherhood that all policy issues, from education to healthcare, would benefit from Islamisation” ( Ghobadzadeh 2015 ).
Islamists endeavour to articulate an Islamic ideology that responds to society’s current political, economic and cultural deficits. They imagine Islam as a complete and ready
and are central to the disciplines of philosophy and political theory—as in the “Q and A” after a lecture, at a seminar or tutorial—the dialogue as a literary form is the exception rather than the norm in any academic discipline. While the oral exchanges, principally of the adversarial kind, do have a lively presence in certain democracies, not to mention in courts of law, the dominant mode of reasoning together that modern theorists have conceived as appropriate for the most fundamental questions of political life is altogether different. The dominant tradition in
religion, legislation on the family and gender equality, the reform of feudal property rights and the construction of a general system of taxation. Given the demand for cultural coherence and national sovereignty, cultural and religious minorities have to be incorporated into the political system either by coercive measures or by some decisive mechanism of assimilation. While the development of German and Italian citizenship through political unification in the 19th century provides obvious European examples, Japanese modernisation represents the most successful Asian
. In 2009, he was seen eagerly waiting for an IOM-hired bus to take him to Kathmandu airport for residency in either Europe or Canada—where many Ahmadiyyas have already settled. For more information on this, read http://tribune.com.pk/story/684227/visa-fines-pakistani-refugees-others-condemned-to-hilly-prison-in-nepal/ Religious extremists in Pakistan repeatedly attack the Ahmadiyya community. A recent example is that of the December 2016 attack on their ‘place of worship’ in Chakwal, Punjab ( Dhakku 2016 ). This raises questions on pluralism and respect for
; Kymlicka and Norman 2000 ) and pondering over how best to accommodate increased diversity with its underlying notion of ‘difference’, while maintaining an overarching sense of belonging and inclusion within the broader society.
Achieving this balance has become increasingly difficult, with ‘populist’ far-right movements and political parties capturing the political ‘centre’ in many European nations, the USA and Australia. The challenge here is to ensure that cultural and religious rights are protected without the risk of producing disconnected communities and a