Wojciech Cynarski, Lothar Sieber, Kazimierz Obodyński, Milan Ďuriček, Paweł Król and Marian Rzepko
Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe
The aim of the research was to indicate the main factors of development declared by the practitioners of the different disciplines of martial arts and combat sports in selected countries of Central Europe. In particular, such variables as training location and type of martial arts/combat sports have been taken into consideration. Five research questions have been established which should be answered in order to find the solution to the posed problem.
The theoretical perspective for analyses presented here consists of sociology of sport and humanist theory of martial arts. This approach results in the need for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to questions about the barriers of development according to the variables of the practiced variety (a martial art, a combat sport) and the place of training.
The method of diagnostic survey has been used. The research was conducted on a group of 500 subjects from south-eastern Poland, Slovakia, Germany and additionally (for comparison) from England, of which 489 were accepted for the study. This number includes 137 representatives of kyokushin karate from Poland, 143 Polish karatekas of non-contact varieties, 18 representatives of jujitsu and karate from Germany, 37 aikidokas from Poland (a martial art without sportive rivalry), 107 judokas from Poland and 24 judokas from Slovakia, with an additional 23 British rugby players. The selection of the group was deliberate and complete, taking into account the representatives of various martial arts and combat sports, with rugby used for comparative purposes.
Practicing martial arts oriented to self-realization, determines the motivation for their practice, which differs from the motivation in sport (combat sports). It influences the dominating choices of values-goals and popularity, thus the development of given varieties. Both martial arts and combat sports of Asian origin (aikido, judo, jujitsu, karate) attract practitioners, mainly due to their usefulness in self-defense. The values connected with training and sportive rivalry (combat sports, rugby) are also noticed. The variable of place (country) is connected with the dominating forms in promoting a given martial art or combat sport.
Mario Amatria, Rubén Maneiro and M. Teresa Anguera
), who deciphered patterns of direct attack in three top European clubs, and by Headrick et al. (2011) , who described proximity‐to‐ goal interactions between attackers and defenders.
Other authors, in turn, have applied T‐ pattern detection to investigate macropatterns, i.e., patterns within a match as a whole. Examples are Jonsson et al. (2006) , who analyzed synergies of positional attack in FC Barcelona, and Barreira et al. (2014) , who in an ambitious study applied T‐ pattern detection to identify optimal pitch areas in which to recover the ball and achieve a
Pedro Reche-Soto, Donaldo Cardona-Nieto, Arturo Diaz-Suarez, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Carlos Gomez-Carmona, Javier Garcia-Rubio and Jose Pino-Ortega
their physical load differs from all field players. Participants were distributed in the following specific positional roles: external defenders (ED) ( n = 4), central defenders (CD) ( n = 4), midfielders (M) ( n = 5), external midfielders (EM) ( n = 4) and attackers (A) ( n = 4) ( Di Salvo et al., 2010 ). Twelve matches were recorded during the 2016/2017 season. The team analyzed participated in the Third Division, which is regulated by the Royal Spanish Football Federation (RFEF). The matches studied resulted in 4 wins, 5 draws, and 3 losses. The study followed
Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jakub Chycki, Marek Sawczuk and Wojciech Smółka
-level sprinters and jumpers compared to top-level weight lifters.
Other studies suggested that neuromuscular development and maintenance might be influenced by a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). This factor is expressed in glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CNTF stimulates gene expression, cell survival or differentiation in a variety of neuronal cell types. All CNTF actions are triggered by binding to its receptor: the CNTFR, of which expression is relatively high in skeletal muscle. Moreover, the analysis with use of the rat model revealed
Karol Gryko, Petr Stastny, Anna Kopiczko, Kazimierz Mikołajec, Ondrej Pecha and Krzysztof Perkowski
preparatory period of the European Championships. The measurements were taken by an anthropometry expert according to the standards proposed by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) ( Marfell‐Jones et al., 2012 ).
The somatotype was calculated according to the Heath‐Carter method ( Carter and Heath, 1990 ) using the Somatotype 1.2.6 computer program (MER Goulding Software Development, Geeveston, Australia). Body mass and body fat (BF) percentages were determined with the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method using a Jawon Medical