Sanja Ledinski Ficko, Vlatko Pejsa and Vesna Zadnik
on comparable and standardized measures and that can be used to improve the health care system. Conducting studies using various health-related quality of life measures is a basis for improvement of health care delivery. 6 In the last decades, the measurement of health-related quality of life has gained acceptance as a primary or secondary endpoint in cancer research worldwide. 7
Evaluation of quality of life is conducted by using standardized questionnaires. 8 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) has purposed a development of an
as to the lymph node status. 2 , 8 All multigene signatures are recommended for use in HR+HER2- lymph node negative or positive BC by the European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM), except for BCI. 6 Oncotype DX is the only multigene signature assigned with NCCN category of preference as preferred in lymph node negative patients (category 1 evidence) and is the only signature with predictive value, MammaPrint has category 1 recommendation as prognostic for lymph node negative and positive patients. 9 ASCO guidelines strongly recommend the use of Oncotype DX and
Mojca Jensterle, Soncka Jazbinsek, Roman Bosnjak, Mara Popovic, Lorna Zadravec Zaletel, Tina Vipotnik Vesnaver, Barbara Faganel Kotnik and Primoz Kotnik
) deficiency follow in decreasing order. Central diabetes insipidus resulting from anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) deficiency occurs almost twice more frequently in children than in adults, can be transient after the procedure and it persists in 65–96% of childhood-onset CP subjects. 8 , 18 , 21 Substitution therapy with hr-GH is safe, effective and does not affect relapse and progression rates. 67 In patients with GH substitution, a better QoL has been reported. 11 In children after the surgery, despite their GH deficiency, a normal or accelerated growth pattern has been
Maja Brloznik, Nina Boc, Gregor Sersa, Jan Zmuc, Gorana Gasljevic, Alenka Seliskar, Rok Dezman, Ibrahim Edhemovic, Nina Milevoj, Tanja Plavec, Vladimira Erjavec, Darja Pavlin, Masa Bosnjak, Erik Brecelj, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Bor Kos, Jani Izlakar, Marina Stukelj, Damijan Miklavcic and Maja Cemazar
irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation and electrochemotherapy (ECT), are advantageous for patients with unresectable hepatic neoplasia adjacent to major bile ducts and vessels. 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 ECT is a method for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs by reversible electroporation, which enables the entry of otherwise poorly or nonpermeant exogenous molecules into cells by the application of short high-intensity electric pulses that induce reversible cell membrane permeabilization. 6 , 7 , 8 ECT is nowadays widely used in European centers for the treatment of
Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone, Luigi Camera, Salvatore Tafuto, Antonio Avallone, Andrea Belli, Paola Incollingo, Raffaele Palaia, Francesco Izzo and Antonella Petrillo
neuroendocrine tumour and the availability of specialized imaging techniques and expertise. 8
A 45 yrs old female: CEUS study of inhomogeneous pancreatic lesion (A) , with necrotic central area (arrow). CT (B) , during late arterial phase of contrast study shows the same vascular profile (arrow) seeing during CEUS study.
Anatomical and functional imaging
Imaging modalities can be anatomic, which assess the physical characteristics of the tissue, or functional, which assess the biochemical characteristics. 7 The increase of knowledge about these
Brain MRI often normal
Clinical + PCR
p/s (plasma/serum); PET (positron emission tomography); CNS (central nervous system); other abbreviations in text .
Wu et al. [ 18 ] also analyzed the incidence of viral CNS reactivation of herpesviruses, with overall incidence of 12.4%. The most frequent were as follows: EBV, 57.1%; HSV1, 19.0%; CMV, 14.3%; VZV, 4.8%, and mixed 4.8% (EBV+CMV).
Polish analyses [ 19 , 20 , 21 ] showed the incidence of viral reactivation in
Introduction: nationwide project
Infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer or undergoing stem cell transplantation [ 1 ]. Children and adults with hematologic malignancies are especially susceptible to bacterial, fungal, and viral infections due to abnormality of the basic mediators of immunity. Factors that predispose these patients to infection include the following: alterations of the body’s natural barriers, presence of central venous catheters, alteration of the innate immune system and acquired immunity, as well as
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is the most prevalent lymphoid malignancy in Europe [ 1 ] and North America [ 2 ] and causes considerable morbidity and mortality. CLL is associated with early onset and often profound immune dysregulation that increases the risk of infection, second malignancies, and autoimmune complications [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The incidence and prevalence of these complications are likely to increase because of population aging and the ongoing development of more effective but still noncurative
with ipilimumab for the second line treatment of advanced NSCLC and for pretreated advanced renal cancer [ 13 ]. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved the agent for advanced melanoma and advanced squamous NSCLC after prior chemotherapy [ 14 ]. Although multiple regimens have been evaluated in clinical trials, the approved dose is 3 mg/kg, administered intravenously every 2 weeks.
The activity of nivolumab in advanced NSCLC was first demonstrated in a phase I trial, where in a cohort of 129 pretreated patients, of whom more than half had received at least
3.5% within 5 years Up to 11%
27% within 5 yrs
12% within 5 yrs 40%-50% at 20 yrs
15% (N. European origin) 18% (African Americans)
There is an increasing evidence that subsequent generations of mutations carriers tend to develop malignancies at younger ages, supporting the existence of genetic anticipation in BRCA1/2 inheritance. Cancers tend to be diagnosed at ages 7–8 years younger