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Smart Thermal Grids – A Review

References [1] Bahar Saeb-Gilani, Barbara Giorgi, Max Bachmann and Martin Kriegel, Potential analysis of heat sharing at different temperature levels in a district, CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress: volume 3. Aalborg: Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering. [2] European Commission - Energy Research Knowledge Centre, Smart District Heating and Cooling, 2014

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Correlation of rheoencephalography and laser Doppler flow: a rat study

reported here measured CBF AR during CO 2 inhalation (a vasodilatory stimulus). A strong correlation between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and ventilatory response to CO 2 has been demonstrated [ 1 ]. CBF and its distribution are highly sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of arterial CO 2 (pCO 2 ). This physiological response (cerebrovascular CO 2 reactivity) is a vital homeostatic function that helps regulate and maintain central pH, which in turn affects the respiratory central chemoreceptor stimulus. As a response to hypercapnia, CBF increases to

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Screening post-menopausal women for bone mineral level by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy of dominant arm

that weight and high BMI are positively associated with BMD, while other studies have shown that body fat percentage influences BMD negatively [ 28 ]. Central or peripheral body fat mass have been reported to be inversely associated with BMD [ 29 ]. Visceral fat has also been reported to have negative impact on trabecular bone mass [ 30 ]. Here, body mass index was analyzed between groups to better understand the effects of weight and height on the skeletal bones. Bone loss is accelerated with decreasing estrogen in women after menopause. Also, it is known that

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Development of a real-time, semi-capacitive impedance phlebography device

Introduction One of the most common diseases is the chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) of the lower extremities, which is caused by a permanent pressure overload of the vein. The venous tree is defective, incapable of removing sufficient amounts of blood from the peripheral veins. This causes pooling of blood and intravascular fluid at the lower gravitational parts of the body - the legs. CVI may affect up to 20% of adults and as much as 1.5% to 2 %of the annual healthcare budgets in European countries are spent on the management of CVI [ 1 , 2 ]. Most

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Impedance detection of the electrical resistivity of the wound tissue around deep brain stimulation electrodes permits registration of the encapsulation process in a rat model

-medium interface. For the calibration solution, R Bulk = R Cal . Figure 3 Schemes illustrating the geometries used in the finite-element simulations of the unipolar and bipolar electrodes. (A) Locations of the electrodes (vertical line) and the counter electrode of the unipolar electrode (dashed). (B) Locations of the electrode tips in the central, spherical domain with the finer mesh. The diameters of the outer and inner spherical domains were 80 and 2 mm, respectively. In the complex plane, the transition frequency from a linear (“constant phase”) to a

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A novel method to obtain proximal plethysmographic information from distal measurements using the impedance plethysmogram

parts of the limbs [ 6 ]. However, short distances D between sensors yield low-accuracy PTT measurements hence the placement of the proximal sensor onto an area proximal to the torso is often required, and that area is less accessible than the hands or feet. Further, PTT measurements in central arteries such as the aorta, which show the highest predictive value for cardiovascular risk assessment [ 10 ], include large portions of other arteries when performed with common pressure-pulse recording devices placed at the limbs and this reduces the measurement performance

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Frequency dependent rectifier memristor bridge used as a programmable synaptic membrane voltage generator

marginal. The clock signal can be created by a central pulse generator similar to the thalamus in biological brains [ 23 ]. Furthermore, decentralized stimuli generated by neurons connected to neurons of interest can be used. The waveform of the clock signal could be a square wave for technical circuits or, if a stronger reference to biological systems is desired, synaptic impulses. If two or more neurons are activated and fire at the same phase and frequency, a physical connection could be established. It is conceivable for this connection to increase in strength as

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Cutoff points of BMI for classification of nutritional status using bioelectrical impedance analysis

reference for the measurement of obesity, with overweight being defined as a BMI range of 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 and obesity as a BMI above 30.0 kg/m 2 [ 8 ]. These values were obtained based on the associations between BMI and mortality in European populations, which formed a J curve between the values of 18.5 and 25.0 kg/m 2 [ 9 ]. Since then, these cutoff points have been used as standard for different populations and different ethnic groups based on the assumption that these different ethnic groups have a similar mortality/morbitity risk. Recently, a new entity called

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Applications of bioimpedance measurement techniques in tissue engineering

middle of the central microchannel and vacuum chambers on both sides; B) Picture of the organ on a chip device (directions indicated by arrows visualize perfusion of the red and blue dyes). Copied with permission (78). The advantages of LOC systems such as higher reliability and increased sensitivity and specificity, and lower costs due to less material consumption, are mostly due to their miniaturized sized and automation. In addition, microfluidic systems also take into consideration the fluid transport that is usually neglected in other cell culture systems

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