Charter ( European Conference on Sustainable Cities and Towns 1994 ) and the Local Agenda 21 ( UN 1992 ; cf. Hermanns 2000 ). The concept of sustainability has been defined in numerous ways. However, the Brundtland Report ( WCED 1987 : 37) sketches out the basic idea of this concept: sustainability enables the needs of people to be satisfied today, without destroying life-sustaining ecosystems for future generations. Therefore, sustainability is a dynamic process and not a static condition.
Global discussions about sustainable development have been carried on well
Andrea Berndgen-Kaiser, Tine Köhler, Maja Lorbek and Markus Wiechert
policies ( Nelle/ Großmann/Haase et al. 2017 : 121 f.). This last conclusion is particularly interesting, as it reveals a research gap on the implications of demographic decline or stagnation in ‘non-emblematic’ locations, such as small and mid-sized German cities.
Small to medium-sized towns dominate the German cityscape: 61.4% of total population, 56% of jobs and 57% of actual taxable capacity are located in these types of towns (BBSR 2012: 12). Small cities ( Kleinstädte ) = municipalities with 5,000 to 20,000 inhabitants and at least basic central functions
ecosystem services through anthropogenic inputs.
Table 1 gives an overview of the frequently mentioned limitations of the ecosystem services concept.
Commonly mentioned shortcomings of the ecosystem services concept
Definitory blurriness, inconsistent use of central terminology, different and inconsistent conceptualisations of the ecosystem services approach
Grunewald/Bastian (2013c : 15); La Notte/D’Amato/Mäkinen et al. (2017 : 393)
Lack of uniformly applicable and
: Altrock, U.; Güntner, S.; Hüning, S.; Peters, D. (Hrsg.): Zwischen Anpassung und Neuerfindung. Raumplanung und Stadtentwicklung in den Staaten der EU-Osterweiterung. Berlin, S. 125–140. Dimitrovska Andrews K. 2005 Nachhaltige Raumentwicklung in Slowenien: Zwischen globalen Trends und lokalen Stadtentwicklungsproblemen Altrock U. Güntner S. Hüning S. Peters D. Zwischen Anpassung und Neuerfindung. Raumplanung und Stadtentwicklung in den Staaten der EU-Osterweiterung Berlin S.125 140
ECORYS (2005): Housing Sector Study in Central Eastern and South Eastern Europe. Studie
Lang, Thilo; Henn, Sebastian; Sgibnev, Wladimir; Ehrlich, Kornelia (Hrsg.) (2015): Understanding Geographies of Polarization and Peripheralization: Perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe and Beyond
Houndsmills, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 9 Tab., 20 Abb., 4 Karten, 352 S.
Probleme der Peripherisierung wurden in den Regionalwissenschaften bis vor Kurzem entweder in Auseinandersetzung mit älteren Zentrum-Peripherie-Modellen und (meist neo-marxistischen) Strukturtheorien diskutiert oder aber im Kontext der Entwicklung relationaler Unterschiede
that cities and regions play an important role in improving the investment and business location climate and the local and regional labour markets ( European Commission 2005 ). The Dutch central government has asked the Sociaal Economische Raad (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands – SER) how to generate the greatest synergies between the various authorities and between the authorities and other partners so as to increase their involvement in achieving the Lisbon targets. In its advice the SER concentrates on anchoring the “Lisbon ownership” on the level of
? Basingstoke 143 163
Brueckner, J.K. (2000): Urban sprawl: Diagnosis and remedies. In: International Regional Science Review 23, 2, 160-171. 10.1177/016001700761012710
Brueckner J.K. 2000 Urban sprawl: Diagnosis and remedies International Regional Science Review 23 2 160 171
Brueckner, J.K.; Thisse, J.-F.; Zenou, Y. (1999): Why is central Paris rich and downtown Detroit poor? An amenity-based theory. In: European Economic Review 43, 1, 91-107. 10.1016/S0014-2921(98)00019-1
Brueckner J.K.; Thisse, J.-F.; Zenou, Y. 1999 Why is central Paris
developed more dynamically than most parts of the country ( European Communities 2004 ). The spatial concentration of economic development in a few national centres, however, is a dangerous threat for cohesion within economically lagging countries in their catching-up process: While regional disparities within the majority of highly developed CentralEuropean countries did not change significantly or even declined over the last years (especially in Germany and Italy the gaps diminished), the cohesion countries are confronted with growing inequalities: Figure 3 shows
between science and policy making, but also borders between the English and the French languages. For instance, the word “region” has different connotations in English and in French, where it is more specific and generally refers to the supra-local scale, as well in the domain of public policy and the academic world. See the definitions for "local" and "region", given by Levy/Lussault (2003 : 573, 777). This misunderstanding also exists in the area of cross border cooperation with regard to the notion of a Euro-region, which is viewed differently in CentralEurope
updated spatial planning principles revealed shifts in the underlying constitutive logics of metropolitan regions, including the introduction of cross-border metropolitan regions ( MKRO 2014 : 10).
Spatial Planning Concept Growth and Innovation. Source: BBSR (2006)
Table 2 shows the way in which terminology and central concepts in German metropolitan policies have undergone a change in recent decades from a negative to a positive framing. The introduction of European metropolitan regions marks a shift from a problem-oriented, analytical or