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Marquita Volken

Trust for Excavation and Research, 2003). Partridge, Eric. Origins: A short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English . (London: Routledge, 2006). Swann, June. ‘Walking before shoe heels’. Transactions of Obuv v Historii/The Shoes in History 2004. Compact disc 2007, Muzeum Jihovchodni, Moray, Zlin, 2007. Thomas, Susan. Medieval Footwear from Coventry; A Catalogue of the Collection of Coventry Museums . (Coventry: Libraries Arts and Museum Department City of Coventry, 1980). Volken, Marquita. Archaeological Footwear, Development of Shoe

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Dong Sun, Qichang Mei, Julien S Baker, Xuewen Jia and Yaodong Gu

Introduction Soccer is the most popular sport all over the world. According to statistics from FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association), the number of professional and amateur soccer players is about 270 million spread around more than 200 countries and regions in the world. Soccer can be played on a variety of surfaces, such as natural grass, artificial turf, indoor wood and synthetic floors. In recent years, with the popularity of artificial turf, turf cleats shoes (short cleats covering the entire sole) have been found having better

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Artur Struzik, Bogdan Pietraszewski and Jerzy Zawadzki

, Llana S, Ferrandis R, García-Belenguer AC. The influence of basketball shoes with increased ankle support on shock attenuation and performance in running and jumping. J Sports Sci, 1997; 15(5): 505-515 Buśko K. An attempt at the evaluation of the lower extremities power during a vertical jump on a dynamometric platform. Biol Sport, 1988; 5(3): 219-225 Buśko K. Selected biomechanical characteristics of male and female basketball national team players. Biol Sport, 1989; 6(4): 319-329 DeVita P, Skelly WA. Effect of landing

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Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle and Thomas Rosemann

References Kenney W.K., Hodgson J.L., Variables predictive of performance in elite middle-distance runners. Br J Sports Med , 1985, 19, 207-209. Hagan R.D., Smith M.G., Gettman L.R., Marathon performance in relation to maximal aerobic power and training indices. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 1981, 13, 185-189. Knechtle B., Duff B., Welzel U., Kohler G., Body mass and circumference of upper arm are associated with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage race - the

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Mihaela Ciulei, Aaron Prado, James Navalta and John A. Mercer

will typically wear a wetsuit during the swim portion of the event. As the athlete exits the water and transitions to the bike, the athlete must decide on when to take the wetsuit off as he/she runs from the swim exit to the location of the bike gear. Some triathlons will have ‘wetsuit strippers’ – these are volunteers that assist the athlete in taking the wetsuit off as quickly as possible. In that case, after the wetsuit is taken off, the athlete must carry the wetsuit to the transition area. In general, athletes tend to hold on to the wetsuit under the arm that is

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Ljubomir Pavlović, Nenad Stojiljković, Nikola Aksović, Emilija Stojanović, Zoran Valdevit, Aaron T. Scanlan and Zoran Milanović

approach had been previously confirmed as valid for assessment of sleep outcomes ( Caia et al., 2017 ). Morning and evening heart rates were measured before physical performance testing in the non-dominant arm using a validated automated measuring device (Omron-M7) ( Coleman et al., 2008 ). Prior to physical performance testing, participants completed a standardised warm-up consisting of moderate-intensity jogging (8 min), static stretching (5 min), and brief bouts of high-intensity running (2 min). All participants completed seven physical performance tests without a

Open access

Glenn Björklund, Marie Alricsson and Ulla Svantesson

without interruption, using approximately a 90° knee flexion followed by a maximal jump. Three maximal CMJs were performed with a 2-min break in between. Throughout the CMJs subjects used a hand-on-hips position to minimize arm movement. Maximum jump height (cm), peak power (W) and relative peak power (W·kg -1 ) were evaluated using Kistler Measurement, Analysis and Reporting Software (MARS, 2012, S2P Ltd., Ljubljana, Slovenia). MARS had shown to have high reliability for the CMJ regarding jump height and relative power with an ICC of 0.94 and 0.96, respectively

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Rubén Ayarra, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Aitor Iturricastillo, Daniel Castillo and Javier Yanci

sessions. Before testing, all the participants carried out a week of re-adaptation to training (two sessions), when they practiced and performed the tests they would be submitted to. All the tests were performed with participants’ regular competition shoes and on the usual playing surface, in an indoor pavilion with a floating wood floor. The players did not perform any intense physical activity for at least 48 h before the tests. Procedures The field tests were organized on nonconsecutive days with an interval of 7 days between the first and second session. Prior to

Open access

Hüseyin Hüsrev Turnagöl

attenuation were removed from the DXA measurement room. All scans and analyses were performed by the same trained and experienced staff. Briefly, after removing the shoes the athlete’s body was centered using a centre line on the scanner table as a reference to align the subject. Subjects’ hands were turned on sides with thumbs up, palms facing legs and arms were alongside the subject’s body so that they were in a midprone position with a standardized gap (1 cm) between the palms and the trunk. Finally, the head was adjusted 3 cm below the horizontal line on the table pad

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Johannes Dirnberger, Hans-Peter Wiesinger, Nicolas Wiemer, Alexander Kösters and Erich Müller

ergometer (Heinz Kettler GmbH and Co. KG, Ense-Parsit, Germany). Immediately thereafter, subjects were asked to take off their shoes and then were seated on the dynamometer chair, with the seat back at an angle of 75° (0° = full hip extension in the lying position) and the proximal part of the calves touching the frontal edge of the seat. In order to minimize extraneous body movements, the shoulders, the chest, the hip and the right femur of the subjects were firmly secured to the chair by means of adjustable straps and belts. In addition, subjects were told to use the