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Jolanta Życińska, Alicja Kuciej and Joanna Syska-Sumińska

Abstract

The aim of the study was to confirm the mediation effects of the task-specific self-efficacy on the relationship between the general self-efficacy and intention and planning considering treatment. The study comprised 265 subjects, of which 165 were post-mastectomy women and 100 patients hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The variables were assessed using the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and tools developed to examine the context of treatment. The data were analyzed using the bootstrapping procedure. The results confirmed the indirect effects of task-specific self-efficacy, both in women making a decision to undergo breast reconstruction, and in patients after ACS formulating intention to change risk behaviours. As smoking was considered to be a moderator in the post-ACS group, the obtained associations were observed only among the patients declaring quitting smoking. In view of the fact that taskspecific self-efficacy is susceptible to context (e.g. it may depend on quitting smoking), it is useful to assess it in order to increase treatment effectiveness.

Open access

Borysław Paulewicz, Agata Blaut and Joanna Kłosowska

Abstract

Attentional bias is assumed to be partly responsible for the onset and maintenance of anxiety by major cognitive theories of emotional disorders. Although much is already known about the therapeutic effects of attentional bias training, only a few studies have examined the mechanism responsible for these effects. In order to test if low-level, cognitive effects of attentional bias training depend on attentional control, 73 participants, who completed the STAI-x2 and the ACS questionnaires, were randomly assigned to a control (n = 37) or attentional training group (n = 36). The attentional manipulation was followed by a search task, during which novel neutral or negative faces could be presented within an array of all-neutral, all-negative or all-positive faces. It was found that individuals with higher ACS score displayed stronger attentional training effects, i.e., they were less accurate in detecting distinctive negative faces, and this effect was not found to be associated with STAI-x2 score. These results show that there is individual variability even in immediate, cognitive effects of attentional bias modification and that special abilities, such as attentional control, might be required for attentional training to be efficient.

Open access

Małgorzata Fajkowska and Douglas Derryberry

Psychometric properties of Attentional Control Scale: The preliminary study on a Polish sample

The presented study was focused primarily on a psychometric analysis of the Attentional Control Scale (ACS), but they also enhanced the understanding of the role of effortful attentional skills in determining the individual well-being, general adaptation or emotional disorders. The analyses included basic item and scale descriptions as well as convergent and discriminant validity. 218 Polish undergraduate students completed the battery of the self-report techniques and two paper —pencil attentional tests. Data revealed a unidimensional of a 20-item ACS. It can be used validly to assess long-term individual differences in attentional skills related to the voluntary executive functions. The analysis of content, internal and construct validity as well as reliability provided evidence of the scale's significant convergent and discriminant validity when correlated with attentional tests and other personality techniques. We found strong, systematic relations between the attentional control and selected measures of temperament, arousal, emotionality, and motivation. The results allow assuming that good attentional control, may protect individuals from the emotional disorders by regulating perceptual, conceptual, and response processing.

Open access

Romana Kadzikowska-Wrzosek

properties of the action control scales (ACS-90). In J. Kuhl, & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation (pp. 47-59). Göttingen: Hogrefe. Kuhl, J. (1996). Who controls whom “when I control myself”? Psychological Inquiry, 7, 61-68. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0701_12 Kuhl, J. (2000). A functional-design approach to motivation and volition: The dynamics of personality systems interactions. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Self-regulation: Directions and challenges for future research (pp

Open access

Katarzyna Kaliszewska-Czeremska

). Action versus state orientation: Psychometric properties of the Action Control Scale (ACS). In: J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and Personality. Action versus orientation (pp. 47-59). Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber Publisher. Lee, Y., Han, D., Yang, K., Daniels, M., Na, C., Kee, B., Renshaw, P. (2009). Depression like characteristics of 5HTTLPR polymorphism and temperament in excessive Internet users. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109 (1), 165-169. Lin, S. S. J., & Tsai, C. (2002). Sensation seeking and

Open access

Kamila Wojdylo, Miguel Kazén, Julius Kuhl and Olga Mitina

. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(6), 1014-1028. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.6.1014 Kuhl, J. (1994). Action and state orientation: Psychometric properties of the action control scales (ACS-90). In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation (pp. 47-59). Göttingen: Hogrefe. Kuhl, J. (2000). A functional-design approach to motivation and volition: The dynamics of personality systems interactions. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Self-regulation: Directions and

Open access

Dominika Zajusz-Gawędzka and Magdalena Marszał-Wiśniewska

) Siła woli a temperament [Will power and temperament]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Psychologii PAN. Marszał-Wiśniewska, M. (2001) Self-regulatory abilities, temperament, and volition in everyday life situations. In H. Brandstätter & A. Eliasz (Eds.), Persons, situations, and emotions. An ecological approach. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 74-94. Marszał-Wiśniewska, M. (2002) Adaptacja Skali Kontroli Działania J. Kuhla (ACS-90) [Adaptation of Action Control Scale by J. Kuhl]. Psychological Studies, 40(2), 77

Open access

Bence Cselik, Márta Szmodis, Gábor Szőts and Pongrác Ács

References Ács P., Hécz R., Paár D., & Stocker M. (2011). A fittség (m)értéke: A fizikai inaktivitás nemzetgazdasági terhei Magyarországon. Közgazdasági Szemle, 58 (7-8), 689-708. Currie, C., et al. (Eds.) (2012). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 6. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Németh Á. (Ed.) (2007). Serdülőkorú

Open access

Csaba Melczer, László Melczer, András Oláh, Mónika Sélleyné-Gyúró, Zsanett Welker and Pongrác Ács

Abstract

Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients’ physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be transmitted to a central system. The research aims to elaborate the methods that help to compare of the data concerning physical activity both built-in an accelerometer in Cardiac Resychrinisation Therapy (CRT) devices and data obtained from an external Actigraph GT3XE-Plus Triaxial Activity Monitor. 5 persons participated in the pilot study (n=5); mean age: 57+- 13.37; BMI: 90.6+- 7.63. The Actigraph data from CRT device were examined in a 6-day-interval, between February 28 and March 5, 2014. The investigation started conducting a 6-minute walking test and continued with the measurement of daily physical activity. For data analysis descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were used. It is clear from the data obtained from Actigraph that the MET values (mean: 1.17 ± 0.096) of the patients in the sample were extremely low due to their disease. However, some patients with higher physical activity than average (1.26; 1.28) seemed to be noteworthy, but they showed lower performance than healthy people. The physical activity of the patients during the 6-minute walking test corresponded to 1.9-2.48 MET. The physical activity of patients was found typically in the “light or moderate range” classifying the physical activity by Actigraph. Data from Actigraph are accurate and detailed making the physical activity of the patients measurable and appreciable. The results of the 6-minute walking test were in the category from moderate to very vigorous for individualized moderate physical performance based on Actigraph. It indicates the individual performance differences among patients. However, the daily physical performance is even lower than that of the 6- minute walking. We can conclude from the data related to the percentage of the average activity in CRT system to the average energy consumption and the improvement in the patients’ physical condition. Due to the limitations of the sampling frequency the different time intervals cannot be isolated in the different intensity ranges. Therefore, the percentage of the data of physical activity provided by the device may have a limited use.

Open access

Annamária Pakai, Éva Brantmüller, Vajda Réka, Ilona Karácsony and Péter Balázs

cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union. European Journal of Cancer, 45 (15), 2685-2708. Gakidou, E., Nordhagen, S., & Obermeyer, Z. (2008). Coverage of Cervical Cancer Screening in 57 Countries: Low Average Levels and Large Inequalities. PLoS Medicine, 5 (6), 863-868. Karamánné Pakai, A., & Oláh, A. (2015). A theoretical overview of scientific research. In Ács. P. (Ed.), Data analysis in practice (pp. 11-34). Pécs: University of Pécs, Faculty of Health Sciences. Kopp, M., & Kovács, M