Introduction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses unstable angina (UA), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STE-MI). UA and NSTE-MI are classified as non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Life-threatening NSTE-ACS is a leading cause of emergency and hospitalization in the United States. [ 1 ] It causes a lot of public expenditures. Its cost might account for a large proportion of worldwide health care expenditures in the future. [ 2 ] The basic medicine for
Xiao-huan Gong, Jin-ming Yu, Yong Mao and Da-yi Hu
Zeynep Yildiz, Abdulkadir Koçer, Şahin Avşar and Göksel Cinier
:329-65. 5. Hamm Cw., Bassand Jp., Agewall S., Bax J. Esc Committee For Practice Guidelines. Esc Guidelines For The Management Of Acute Coronary Syndromes In Patients Presenting Without Persistent St-Segment Elevation: The Task Force For The Management Of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Acs) In Patients Presenting Without Persistent St-Segment Elevation Of The European Society Of Cardiology (Esc). Eur Heart J. 2011; 32:2999-3054. 6. Kerr G., Ray G., Wu O., Stott Dj., Langhorne P. Elevated Troponin After Stroke: A Systematic Review. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009; 28
Anca Bălănescu, Paul Bălănescu, Valentina Comănici, Iustina Stan, Beata Acs, Laura Prisăcariu, Florin Brezan, Tatiana Ciomârtan and Ioan Gherghina
Background and aims. The aim of this study is to assess the lipid profile pattern of pediatric overweight and/or obese patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in relation to IDF Consensus Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).
Material and Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional preliminary study on 45 consecutive pediatric patients. Overweight or obese children aged from 3 to 18 years were included. Standardized measurement of blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were performed. Biological evaluation included inflammatory status, lipid profile, glycemic profile, full blood count and liver function tests. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in all patients.
Results. Prevalence of MetS was 44.4%. A number of 21 patients (46.7%) had NAFLD. MetS patients had higher risk for NAFLD (OR = 9.5, 95% CI = 2.42-37.24). Also patients with positive familial history of type 2 diabetes had a 6.61 fold higher risk for NAFLD (OR = 6.61, 95% CI = 1.74-25.1). We performed a subgroup analysis in patients under ten years old. Patients under the age of ten which had both NAFLD and MetS met more frequently the hypertriglyceride criterion. After adjusting for age and MetS presence, triglyceride levels independently associated with NAFLD (adjusted R square = 0.46, unstandardized B coefficient = 34.51, 95% CI = 4.01-65.02, p = 0.02).
Conclusion. NAFLD obese patients had higher prevalence of MetS, higher BMI and particular lipid profile pattern. Triglyceride levels independently associated with NAFLD after adjusting for age and MetS presence. According to our findings we suggest early triglyceride testing (even below the age of ten) in selected patients.
Pascal Meier, Alexandra J. Lansky and Andreas Baumbach
Unstable coronary artery plaque is the most common underlying cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and can manifest as unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation infarction (NSTE-ACS), and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but can also manifest as sudden cardiac arrest due to ischaemia induced tachyarrhythmias. ACS mortality has decreased significantly over the last few years, especially from the more extreme manifestations of ACS, STEMI, and cardiac arrest. This trend is likely to continue based on recent therapeutic progress which includes novel antiplatelet agents such as prasugrel, ticagrelor and cangrelor.
Theodora Benedek, Ioana Rodean, Mihaela Ratiu, Nora Rat, Lia Yero Eremie, Carmen Biriș, Luminița Lazăr, Mariana Păcurar and Imre Benedek
Recent studies have shown that systemic inflammation caused by periodontal disease (PD) can determine important changes in the coronary arteries, favoring atherosclerosis progression and the development of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of the ATHERODENT study (Protocol Record Number CM0117-ATD) is to assess the interrelation between PD, inflammation, and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with ACS.
Material and methods: This case-control observational study will enroll 100 patients (group 1 – ACS and associated PD, and group 2 – ACS and no PD), in whom the following data will be collected: (1) demographic and clinical data; (2) cardiovascular risk factors; (3) full characterization of PD markers; (4) systemic inflammatory biomarkers; (5) imaging biomarkers derived from transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography, coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography, and intravascular ultrasound; and (6) assessment of the presence of specific oral bacteria in samples of coronary plaques collected by coronary atherectomy, which will be performed during percutaneous revascularization interventions, when indicated in selected cases, in the atherectomy sub-study. The follow-up will be performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. The primary endpoint of the study will be represented by the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in PD vs. non-PD patients and in correlation with: (1) the level of systemic inflammation triggered by PD and/or by ACS at baseline; (2) the vulnerability degree of atheromatous plaques in the coronary tree (culprit and non-culprit lesions); and (3) the presence and burden of oral bacteria in atheromatous plaques. Secondary endpoints will be represented by: (1) the rate of progression of vulnerability degree of non-culprit coronary plaques; (2) the rate of progression of atheromatous burden and calcium scoring of the coronary tree; and (3) the rate of occurrence of left ventricular remodeling and post-infarction heart failure. The ATHERODENT study has been registered in clinicaltrials.gov (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03395041).
Diana Opincariu and Iulia Monica Chițu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly widespread healthcare problem. AF can frequently present as a complication in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), especially in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in which case it is the most frequent supraventricular rhythm disturbance with an estimated incidence of 6.8-21%. The presence of AF in ACS heralds worse outcomes in comparison to subjects in sinus rhythm, and several studies have shown that in AMI patients, both new-onset and pre-existing AF are associated with a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events during hospitalization. The cause of newonset AF in AMI is multifactorial. Although still incompletely understood, the mechanisms involved in the development of AF in acute myocardial ischemic events include the neurohormonal activation of the sympathetic nervous system that accompanies the AMI, ischemic involvement of the atrial myocytes, ventricular dysfunction, and atrial overload. The identification of patients at risk for AF is of great significance as it may lead to prompt therapeutic interventions and closer follow-up, thus improving prognosis and decreasing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The present manuscript aims to summarize the current research findings related to new-onset AF in AMI patients, as well as the predictors and prognostic impact of this comorbid association.
Theodora Benedek, András Mester, Annabell Benedek, Nora Rat, Diana Opincariu and Monica Chițu
The aim of this systematic review was to analyze studies characterizing vulnerable coronary plaques using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), in order to identify the most efficient invasive technique permitting plaque characterization in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Method: A total number of 432 studies were identified, 420 through database searching and 12 through manual searching. Eight duplicate studies were removed, leaving a total number of 424 studies to be screened. Twenty-six studies only available in Abstract-only form were excluded, resulting in 398 studies checked for eligibility. Eleven studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic analysis. Plaque vulnerability was investigated in plaques with thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) versus those with thick cap fibroatheroma, in ruptured coronary plaques versus non-ruptured coronary plaques, in culprit versus non-culprit lesions and in lipid-rich versus non-lipid-rich plaques.
Results: A total of 1,568 coronary plaques in 1,225 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) who underwent both IVUS and OCT for analysis of plaque features were included in the final analysis. The review identified the following IVUS-derived features as significantly correlated with plaque vulnerability: plaque burden (p <0.001), remodeling index (p <0.001), external elastic membrane cross-sectional area (p <0.001), and the amount of necrotic core (p <0.001), while OCT-derived features characterizing unstable plaque were TCFA (p <0.001), lipid arch (p <0.001), accumulation of macrophages (p = 0.03), and presence of intracoronary thrombus (p <0.001).
Conclusion: Both IVUS and OCT are invasive imaging techniques able to provide relevant information on the vulnerability of coronary atheromatous plaques, identifying, as they do, various plaque features significantly associated with unstable plaques. Information provided by the two techniques is complementary, and both methods can serve as a useful clinical diagnostic tool, especially in cases of ACS patients undergoing a revascularization procedure.
Theodora Benedek, Nora Rat, Roxana Hodas, Diana Opincariu, András Mester and Imre Benedek
Background: This systematic review seeks to evaluate the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), quantified either by thickness, assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, or by volume, assessed by cardiac computed tomography (CT), in the follow-up of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Method: One-hundred forty-four articles were screened, from which 56 were reviewed in full-text. From those, 47 studies were excluded for the following reasons: they did not meet the inclusion criteria; they were either reviews or meta-analyses; the study cohorts included only stable coronary artery disease patients; they did not state a clear and concise study design, endpoints, or follow-up. The final draft included nine studies for systematic evaluation. Results: Of the 2,306 patients included in the review, 170 underwent cardiac CT while the remaining 2,136 underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the measurement of EAT. The analysis found that the EAT thickness was significantly associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) rates during hospitalization (OR: -1.3, 95% CI: 1.05-1.62, p = 0.020) and at three years (HR: 1.524, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2, p = 0.038). The included studies found that EAT was correlated with the following clinical and angiographic risk scores for ACS: GRACE (r = 0.438, p <0.001), TIMI risk score (r = 0.363, p = 0.001), SYNTAX score (r = 0.690, p <0.0001; r = 0.610, p <0.01), and Gensini score (r = 0.438, p = 0.001). There was an inverse correlation between ST-segment resolution of <70% after revascularization and EAT (r = −0.414, p = 0.01), and the myocardial blush grade (r = −0.549, p <0.001). The EF aggregation ranged between 2.65 mm and 4.7 mm within the included studies. Conclusions: EAT, evaluated either by echocardiography or cardiac CT, correlates with the severity of coronary lesions, with the clinical and angiographic risk scores for acute coronary syndromes, with indicators for coronary reperfusion, and with short- and long-term MACE rates. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the role of this extensively studied but still novel cardiovascular biomarker as part of a risk prediction tool.
Andreea Barcan, Istvan Kovacs, Ciprian Blendea, Marius Orzan and Monica Chitu
Introduction: The recent development of large networks dedicated to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) led to a significant increase in the number of primary percutaneous interventions (p-PCI) parallel with mortality reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). The number of non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is increasing and the highest mortality rates are encountered in patients with cardiogenic shock and/or out of hospital cardiac arrest associated to ACS. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with a higher mortality rate in a global population with acute coronary syndromes presented in the emergency department of a county clinical hospital which serves as a regional center for a STEMI network.
Material and method: This is a retrospective study including 684 patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted in the Clinic of Cardiology from the County Clinical Emergency Hospital Tîrgu Mureș in 2014. In all the cases, the factors that correlated with in hospital mortality were identified and analyzed.
Results: The incidence of arterial hypertension was significantly higher in patients admitted with unstable angina (75.0%) and STEMI cases with less than 12 hours onset of symptomatology (68.1%), while impaired renal function correlated with the presence of NSTEMI (66.6%). The presence of a multivessel disease was significantly correlated with cardiogenic shock. The localisation of the culprit lesion in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) significantly correlated with the development of cardiogenic shock, LAD culprit lesions being present in 44.4% of CS cases as compared with 21.7% of noCS cases in STEMI patients. In NSTEMI patients, the localisation of the culprit lesion in the left main artery (LM) significantly correlated with the development of cardiogenic shock, culprit lesions in the left main being present in 47.0% of CS cases as compared with 28.5% of noCS cases in STEMI patients.
Conclusion: Patients presenting with out-of-hospital resuscitated cardiac arrest due to Acute Myocardial Infarction associate higher in-hospital mortality rates. In-hospital mortality seems to be highly correlated with the female gender, STEMI myocardial infarction and the presence of multivascular lesions.
Maria-Magdalena Leon-Constantin, Alexandra Maștaleru, Ovidiu Mitu, Madalina Zota, Teodor Vasilcu, Radu Gavril and Florin Mitu
, Lopes RD, James S et al. Apixaban with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl JMed. 2011;365(8):699-708. 8. Korjian S, Braunwald E, Daaboul Y et al. Safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban for the secondary prevention following acute coronary syndromes among biomarkerpositive patients: Insights from the ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2017:2048872617745003. 9. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(10):883-91. 10