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Grazyna Sypniewska, Katarzyna Bergmann, Magdalena Krintus, Marek Kozinski and Jacek Kubica

References Ogolnopolski Rejestr Ostrych Zespolow Wiencowych PL-ACS Torres M, Moayedi S. Evaluation of the acutely dyspneic elderly patient. Clin Geriatr Med 2007; 23: 307-25. Davidson MH. Apolipoprotein measurements: is more widespread use clinically indicated? Clin Cardiol 2009; 32: 9: 482-6. Barter PJ, Ballantyne CM, Carmena R, et al. Apo B versus cholesterol in estimating cardiovascular risk and in guiding therapy: report of the

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Gianfranco Cervellin, Fiorenza Robuschi, Francesco Scioscioli, Livia Ruffini, Mariella Dipalo, Gian Luca Salvagno and Giuseppe Lippi

Society of Cardio logy (ESC). Eur Heart J 2012; 33: 2569–619. 5. Hamm CW, Bassand J P, Agewall S, Bax J, Boersma E, Bueno H, et al. ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines; Document Reviewers. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011; 32: 2999–3054. 6. Jneid H, Anderson JL, Wright RS, Adams CD

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David Gaze

Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Assays: Myth and Magic or a Practical Way Forward?

Cardiac troponins (cTn) are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) a pathological spectrum which includes cardiac ischemia, angina, myocardial infarction and ultimately cardiac failure. The growing evidence base for the diagnostic and prognostic use of cTn in ACS has resulted in a universal redefinition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A diagnosis of AMI includes the detection of an elevated cTn (or CK-MB) with at least one measurement within 24 hours of the cardiac episode being >upper 99th percentile of a reference population, in conjunction with evidence of myocardial ischemia. A number of high sensitivity immunoassays with claims of superior imprecision and a definable 99th percentile have been produced. Clinically, these have two important impacts. First, there is a drive to change the values into whole numbers by the application of a unit change which carries the scope for confusion. Secondly, the near-normal Gaussian distribution of sensitive cTn in healthy subjects will increase the frequency of cTn positivity in the non-ACS population. The problem is to decipher if such minor elevations in cTn are of clinical concern. What is certain is that AMI remains a clinical not a biochemical diagnosis and the interpretation of cTn concentrations should be made according to the clinical context.

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Grazyna Sypniewska, Marcin Sawicki, Magdalena Krintus, Marek Kozinski and Jacek Kubica

The Use of Biochip Cardiac Array Technology for Early Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes

Serum troponin is the best biomarker for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, but it takes considerable time before a definitive diagnosis is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a multimarker approach, using the biochip cardiac array, would facilitate the early diagnosis. Serum biomarkers were determined on admission (≤6 hrs) and after 6 hours in 42 patients suspected for ACS. Cardiac troponin I was measured by a sensitive assay (STATcTnI) and cardiac markers (H-FABP, myoglobin, cTnI, CK-MB mass, carbonic anhydrase III) were assayed with the use of Biochip Array Technology. STATcTnI concentrations, within the first 6 hours, were elevated >99th percentile for the reference population in 83.3% of subjects, but none reached the cut-off for AMI. On admission H-FABP was the only marker with 90.5% sensitivity in all ACS cases and 100% sensitivity in STEMI/NSTEMI patients. The sensitivity of myoglobin at presentation was 71.4% in ACS, however, combined sensitivity of myoglobin and H-FABP reached 95.2%. Lowering the cut-off for cTnI allowed early diagnosis (≤6 hrs) in only 26.2% of ACS patients and 95.2% after the next 6 hours. In unstable angina the cardiac panel was not sufficiently accurate for early risk stratification. In conclusion, testing for both markers, H-FABP and sensitive cardiac troponin, available with the cardiac array may facilitate the early detection of myocardial injury in clinical practice.

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Artur Bryja, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Maurycy Jankowski, Piotr Celichowski, Katarzyna Stefańska, Agata Chamier-Gliszczyńska, Blanka Borowiec, Katarzyna Mehr, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Małgorzata Bruska, Maciej Zabel, Michał Nowicki and Bartosz Kempisty

mouse origin. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(11):1091–100; DOI:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.07.002. 11. Li Y, Yang J, Li S, Zhang J, Zheng J, Hou W, Zhao H, Guo Y, Liu X, Dou K, Situ Z, Yao L. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2, a novel estrogen-targeted gene, is involved in the regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(37):32289–99; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.247825. 12. Apell H-J, Hitzler T, Schreiber G. Modulation of the Na,K-ATPase by Magnesium Ions. Biochemistry. 2017;56(7):1005–16; DOI:10.1021/acs.biochem.6b01243. 13. Graf S, Haimel M, Bleda M

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Giuseppe Lippi, Ruggero Buonocore, Michele Mitaritonno and Gianfranco Cervellin

J, O’Riordan D, Silke B. High-sensitivity troponin as an outcome predictor in acute medical admissions. Postgrad Med J 2014; 90: 311-6. 28. Lippi G. Biomarkers: Novel troponin immunoassay for early ACS rule-out. Nat Rev Cardiol 2016; 13: 9-10.

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Agnieszka Knopik-Skrocka and Agata Śniegowska

, Hazelett Cc, Yeaman Ch, Ohno H. M-Sec promotes membrane nanotube formation by interacting with RaI and the exocyst complex. Nat Cell Biol 2009; 11: 1427-1432. [23] He K, Luo W, Zhang Y, Liu F, Liu D, Xu L, Qin L, Xiong C, Lu Z, Fang X, Zhang Y. Intercellular transportation of quantum dots mediated by membrane nanotubes. ACS Nano 2010; 4: 3015-3022. [24] He Y, Wu J, Dressman DC, Iacobuzio-Donahue CH, Markowitz SD, Velculescu VE, Diaz LA, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Papadopoulos N. Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations in normal and tumor

Open access

Wei Zhang, Junlei Chen, Xinxia Li, Yuwen Wang and Jiutong Li

in plasma, but H-FABP is released rapidly upon the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ( 2 ). This increase in H-FABP can be detected as early as 30 min following the onset of AMI, and the H-FABP concentration typically peaks within 6–8 hours after symptom onset. H-FABP as a biomarker offers high sensitivity across the full spectrum of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). The combination of high sensitivity and early specificity of H-FABP makes it a promising biomarker for early diagnosis and treatment of AMI and ACS that could be superior to the

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Ana Ninić, Nataša Bogavac-Stanojević, Miron Sopić, Jelena Munjas, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Milica Miljković, Tamara Gojković, Dimitra Kalimanovska-Oštrić and Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska

and dyspnea). Significant stenosis, defined as a decrease in lumen greater than or equal to 50% in at least one of the three main coronary blood vessels, was diagnosed in 32 patients. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) which included unstable angina pectoris and acute infarction myocardium with or without ST elevation were diagnosed in 30 patients. All of 77 patients were on some form of therapy before angiography procedure: 17 on beta blockers, 23 on beta-blockers and angiotensin-convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibitors, 16 on ACE inhibitors and diuretics and 21 on beta

Open access

Sylwia Borys, Ronza Khozmi, Wiesława Kranc, Artur Bryja, Michal Jeseta and Bartosz Kempisty

. Neuroprotective properties and mechanisms of resveratrol in in vitro and in vivo experimental cerebral stroke models., ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2013; 4 (8): 1151-1162. [41] Sun X. Measurement and correlation of stability of trans-resveratrol in 11 solvents at T=(278,2, 288.2, 298.2 and 318.2), K. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 2008; 40: 735- 738. [42] Szaefer H, Cichocki M, Majchrzak-Celińska A. Nowe cytochromy P450 jako biomarkery i potencjalne cele oddziaływania w chemio prewencji i terapii nowotworów, PostepyHig. Med. Dosw. (online) 2013; 67: 709