chapter on nation building. National expansion involved the acquisition and incorporation of territories that resulted in the existing 50 states. Colonialism—predicated on a distinction between colony and metropole—had a limited impact centered on the acquisition of Spanish colonies after the Spanish-American War of 1898. In this territorial expansion, race came front and centre into debates over who counted as a citizen, as it did in the aftermath of the Civil War and the ratification of the 13 th , 14 th , and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution, which have
, such as an economist or a scientist working for a government (ibid., pp. 4, 13). Derived from a characterisation by Benda, Said writes of a third kind of intellectual, ‘of the intellectual as a being set apart’ (ibid., p. 8), angry and oppositional, a critic of all worldly powers. They marry the academic’s commitment to intellectual values, but combine it with a critique of injustice, which is aimed, not just at fellow specialists, but at as wide a public audience as they can manage. I can offer my understanding of public intellectual engagement by relating to Said
population in Pakistan. Some state that it is around 7%, but Shias claim their population to be between 15% and 20%. If we estimate the Pakistani Shia population based on the estimated population of 200 million in 2016, then their number can be between 13 and 38 million out of the 192 million Muslims. Whatever the case might be, there is no denying the fact that there is a sizeable Shia population in Pakistan. In discussions on nation-building, it is imperative to focus on the non-homogeneity of Islam in Pakistan. While analysing the factors responsible for national
prospective Australian citizens should have to demonstrate some knowledge of “Australian culture and traditions” as distinct from Australian history, national symbols and system of democracy ( Commonwealth of Australia 2006 , p. 13).
In his subsequent public addresses, Robb reinforced this impression of an expanded notion of culture by variously invoking “the Australian culture” and “Australia’s way of life” ( Robb 2006b ) and equating an overriding culture and core values with the idea of a “shared national identity” ( Robb 2006a ). National identities surely exist and
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Campt, T.M. 1993. Afro-German cultural identity and the politics of positionality: contests and contexts in the formation of a German ethnic identity. New German Critique (58), pp.109-126.
Campt T.M. 1993 Afro-German cultural identity and the politics of positionality: contests and contexts in the formation of a German ethnic identity New German Critique 58 109 126
: Multilingual Matters. Foster L. Stockley D. 1984 Multiculturalism: The changing Australian paradigm Avon Multilingual Matters
Furedi, F. 1997. The culture of fear ; risk taking and the morality of low expectations . London: Cassell. Furedi F. 1997 The culture of fear; risk taking and the morality of low expectations London Cassell
Greene, A. 2017. ‘Prominent Australian academic says he’s been silenced by Chinese Government.’ Accessed 8 February. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-11-13/academic-claims-hes-been-silenced-by-chinese-government/9142694 . Greene A. 2017
multiculturalism) and misreported and misunderstood the laws and policies on culture and religion in Europe. This article addresses these relationships in an exploration of religion and culture in the European Union (EU), and while concurring about the importance of religious issues, this article argues for a disentanglement of the two as a necessary step in engaging with the real religious differences within and across the EU. An earlier version of this paper appeared in Mansouri (2017) , 145-170.
The European Community is the unique and fascinating development of an
In the spring of 2016, the first author attended the naturalization ceremony at which Vinod, an IT specialist from Mumbai, and his son were granted Dutch citizenship. During the ceremony, Vinod and other migrants recited an oath of loyalty to the Dutch state. Vinod and his family seemed to enjoy the ceremony but he was quick to assert that he was only doing this for the purpose of travel and to secure more opportunities for his son. Vinod, his wife Neha and their young son moved to the Netherlands in 2009. As a “highly skilled” or “knowledge
Cultural diversity has been increasingly appreciated as an abidingreality in the world ( UNESCO, 2009 ). For many, diversity is no longer seen as a problem to be overcome on a path to some universally integrating viewpoint. Similarly, cultures are not seen as fixed blocks of separate and largely unchanging beliefs, values, practices and artefacts, but as interconnected, interrelating and each rich with internal diversity ( UNESCO, 2009 ; Bouma, 2011 ). While the term ‘multicultural’ is increasingly used to describe societies with diverse