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Lukas Rasulic

. Bulgarian Neurosurg. 2002;7(1):139-44. 12. Enchev Y, Eftimov T. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28(5). 13. Kostovic I, Judas M, Kostovic-Knezevic L, Simic G, Delalle I, Chudy D, et al. Zagreb research collection of human brains for developmental neurobiologists and clinical neuroscientists. Int J Dev Biol. 1991;35(3):215-30. 14. Šercer A . A contribution to the therapy and clinical findings of hypophyseal tumors based on a single observation

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Francesco Tomasello

removal of gliomas. Neuroimage. 2008;39(1):369-82. 13. Ius T, Isola M, Budai R, Pauletto G, Tomasino B, Fadiga L, et al. Lowgrade glioma surgery in eloquent areas: volumetric analysis of extent of resection and its impact on overall survival. A single-institution experience in 190 patients: clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2012;117(6):1039-52. 14. Conti A, Raffa G, Granata F, Rizzo V, Germano A, Tomasello F. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for "somatotopic" tractography of the corticospinal tract. Neurosurgery. 2014;10 Suppl 4

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Enrique Osorio Fonseca

References 1. Prunieres A. Sur les cranies artifiellement perforés et les rondelles cranienes a lépoque des dolmens.Paris: dAntrthrop; 1874. 2. Broca P. Cas singulier de trépanation chez les Incas.Paris: Bull Antrhop ; 1887. 3. Gomez J, Correal GU. Los Chibchas precursores de la cirugía cranena en colombia. Neurología en Colombia. 1977;1(1):5-19. 4. Tello J. . Prehistoric trephaning among the Yauyos of Peru. Amer. Congress. London. 1912.. 5. Weiss ,I. Crossed leg palsy; with

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F. Salle, A. Jaume, G. Castelluccio and E. Spagnuolo

great majority of aneurysms were small (less than 10mm diameter) [ 3 ]. So, can we generalize these results? The truth is that coiling is being offered to patients who were not suitable for inclusion in ISAT. A recently published metaanalysis by Hui Li et al. [ 3 ] included studies between 1999 and 2012 with 11568 participants. There were 4 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 23 observational studies that met the inclusion criteria. 13 studies assessed poor outcome rate (death or dependency) at 1 year. RCTs yielded the following results: 31.1% poor outcome average

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Ling Feng

neurosurgery in New China. Chin J Surg. 1959;7:889-90. 11. Zhao YC. Neurology, neurosurgery and psychiatry in New China. Chin Med J. 1965;84:714-24. 12. Cheng YX, Li F, Lu JY, Li M, Du P, Xu GL, et al. Growth of G422 glioma implanted in the mouse brain was affected by the immune ability of the host. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124(13):1994-8. 13. Ma YH, Yu JB, Yao HP, Zhan RY, Zheng JS. Treatment of intracerebral glioblastomas with G422 tumour cell vaccine in a mouse model. J Int Med Res. 2008;36(2):308-13. 14. Wang

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Gerhard Franz Walter

development of the functional MRI in the 1990s is credited to Seiji Ogawa and Ken K. Kwong [ 13 , 14 ]. fMRI works by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occur in response to neural activity – when a brain area is more active it consumes more oxygen and to meet this increased demand blood flow increases to the active area. Oxygen is delivered to neurons by hemoglobin in capillary red blood cells. When neuronal activity increases there is an increased demand for oxygen and the local response is an increase in blood flow to regions of increased neural

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Pablo Ajler, Alvaro Campero, Federico Landriel, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Santiago Hem and Antonio Carrizo

treatment of sellar region tumors, and currently almost all GH-secreting adenomas are managed in this way. Surgery objectives include to stop GH oversecretion by maintaining normal pituitary function, and to relieve local compression. In recent years, endoscopic neurosurgery has become a useful procedure to approach the sellar region. Probably this new technique is a step forward in approaching these tumors [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ]. Here we present a series of 81 acromegalic patients treated with a transsphenoidal approach who have been operated on by experienced

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Shigeaki Kobayashi and Akio Morita

anterior choroidal artery. Surg Neurol. 1979;12(2):171-87. 12. Ture U, Yasargil MG, Friedman AH, Al-Mefty O. Fiber dissection technique: lateral aspect of the brain. Neurosurgery. 2000;47(2):417-26. 13. Matsushima T, Rhoton AJ, Lenkey C. Microsurgery of the fourth ventricle: Part 1. Microsurgical anatomy. Neurosurgery. 1982;11(5):631-67. 14. Kyoshima K, Kobayashi S, Gibo H, Kuroyanagi T. A study of safe entry zones via the floor of the fourth ventricle for brain-stem lesions. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg. 1993

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Tetsuya Goto, Chika Ndubuisi, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Takafumi Kiuchi, Kunihiko Kodama, Keiichi Sakai and Kazuhiro Hongo

1 Introduction In glioma resection at an eloquent area, the extent of tumor resection and postoperative functional status of the patient are the major determinants of outcome. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring and awake craniotomy have contributed significantly to safety of surgeries around the eloquent areas but sometimes may limit the tumor resection rate [ 1 , 2 , 10 , 13 ]. Brain plasticity is another concept that helps to reduce postoperative neurological deficits while maximizing the extent of tumor removal [ 3 , 11 ]. A reliable, non

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Anna Knafel, Marcin Wiecheć, Agnieszka Nocuń and Antoni Basta

? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;20:9-13. 11. Bilardo C.M., Timmerman E., Pajkrt E., van Maarle M.: Increased nuchal translucency in euploid fetuses - what should we be telling the parents? Prenat Diagn 2010;30:93-102. 12. Lombardi C.M., Bellotti M., Fesslova V., Cappellini A.: Fetal echocardiography at the time of the nuchal translucency scan. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29:249-257. 13. Yagel S, Weissman A, Rotstein Z, Manor M, Hegesh J, Anteby E, Lipitz S, Achiron R. Congenital heart defects: natural course and in utero