taxation and empolyee social security contributions, as discussed earlier.)
The revenue-maximizing top earned income tax rate for different parameter values.
ETI ( e )
Share of income-shifting in ETI ( s )
Paretoparameter ( a )
Top tax rate on dividends (including commodity tax) ( t 2 )
Revenue-maximizing top tax rate ( t max )
different on another dimension as well, since it is not merely focused on reviewing research evidence from the United States.
Several studies provide evidence that firms manage their earnings around events when there is a change in the CTR (e.g ., Guenther 1994 ; Lopez et al . 1998 ; Roubi and Richardson 1998 ). In these studies, firms are observed to defer earnings from high to low tax rate periods. After a call by Hanlon and Heitzman (2010) for more work to help understand the reporting behavior of privately held firms overall and especially with respect to
reflections on the Nordic experience and its implications for the study of comparative tax law and the globalization problem.
Throughout the article, I will refer to the “Nordic region,” “Norden,” and (less frequently) “Scandinavia” as a single unit, typically including all of the countries above together with smaller entities (e.g., the Faroe Islands) that share basic characteristics with it. I recognize that this is a fiction, because the countries involved vary considerably in tax and nontax policy, and that Scandinavia in particular is an inaccurate, confusing word
financing. See Government Proposal 200/1992 p. 4. Thus, a system in which the income of a natural person is divided into two different types of taxable income, namely, earned income and capital income, was introduced. Income Tax Act (1535/1992, tuloverolaki , TVL) Section 29(2). The basic idea of the Nordic model is the progressive taxation of earned income and the proportional taxation of capital income.
Thus, our dualistic income tax model has just turned 25 years. In the spirit of this milestone, it is a good time to look at the reasons for which the system
represent, but do not necessarily represent, subjectively oriented concepts that refer to the personal circumstances of the taxpayer. This article is one in a series of studies on the technique of statutory tax legislation that has been published in Sweden in recent years ( e . g ., Hultqvist et al . 2014 ).
To investigate tax legislation technique
This study is conducted from a Swedish tax law perspective. This means, that it is the Swedish discourse and regulations that set the scope and serve as a point of departure for my investigation. The principles and
:EU:C:1999:500; Case C-17/03 Vereniging voor Energie ECLI:EU:C:2005:362; Case C-173/06 Agrover ECLI:EU:C:2007:612; and Case C-583/11 P — Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami ECLI:EU:C:2013:625. Terra and Kajus (2014) , which is the highest authoritative interpreter of the EU law Elgaard (2016a , b) . Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) Article 267.
The comparative analysis emphasizes the teleological interpretation of the national rules on VAT grouping in order to examine the purposes and intentions for the rules. Again, this is natural for Denmark and