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injuries, and the most common of all these injuries are PFD [ 8 , 9 ]. PFD affects the articular cartilage, which can result in anterior knee pain and deficits in function [ 10 , 11 ]. PFD is most commonly seen in youngathletes 15-30 years old [12-15]. The increased incidence in patellofemoral pain among women has been attributed to sex differences in muscle strength, conditioning and anatomic structure; and especially an increased Q angle [ 16 , 17 ]. Various methods have been adopted to measure the Q angle, including the radiographic method [ 6 , 7 ] and the
Relationships between competitive anxiety, social support and self-handicapping in youth sport
Study aim: To assess the level of self-handicapping tendency, competitive anxiety (trait) and social support within groups of young male and female athletes, as well as to determine the relationships between those variables.
Material and methods: A group of 75 athletes (46 male football players and 29 female volleyball players) from Sport Mastery School in Łódź, aged 16 - 19 years, participated in the study. Three questionnaires were administered: Anticipative Strategy of Self-Esteem Protection Scale (ASO) to measure self-handicapping tendency, Social Support Scale (SWS) and Reactions to Competition (RnW), in order to measure the competition-related anxiety (trait).
Results: Female athletes attained significantly higher scores in ASO and RnW while male players perceived their social support higher than girls. No significant correlations between self-handicapping and anxiety were found. Most of the observed relationships between self-handicapping and social support were negative, like those between anxiety and social support.
Conclusions: It is advisable to work with young athletes on eliminating self-handicapping activities and replacing them with other, more efficient, ways of coping with anxiety. Social support (adequate to the athlete's needs) might be crucial in that proceeding. The hypothesis of relationship between sport competitive anxiety and self-handicapping was not confirmed, maybe due to the relatively small number of subjects.
Perception of doping-related risks by junior and senior athletes
Study aim: To assess the degree of acceptance of risk by experienced and inexperienced athletes. Material and methods: Two male teams participated in the study: juniors (football; n = 9) aged 16 - 18 years and seniors (volleyball; n = 13) aged 20 - 32 years. The subjects were requested to assess the doping-related risk of losing every of 6 values: health, medals, ranking position, physical attractiveness, psycho-emotional balance, bonuses and respect of personages, in three modes: importance of losing given value (scale 1 - 6), general likelihood of a doping-related loss of given value (scale 0 - 100) and the doping-related risk of losing given value the subject would be ready to take (scale 0 - 100).
Results: Seniors and juniors rated the importance of individual values and the doping-related general likelihood of losing them alike. As compared with senior athletes, the junior ones significantly underrated the risk of losing health and respect and overrated that of possible bonus.
Conclusions: The emotional, cognitive and social maturation of young athletes throughout a decade have an impact on perceiving doping-related risks and the associated decisions.
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