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instructors and the measurement begun when the legs left the wall and stopped when the hand touched the wall. The mean value was selected for analysis. The start was given in water with a whistleblow.
Assessment of isokinetic torque
The measurements were performed using an isokinetic dynamometer (Con-Trex, Medimex, Sainte Foy les Lyon, France). Isokinetic assessment was performed in the dominant arm for internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER) of the shoulder joint with the players in the supine position with the arm abducted at 90° in the frontal plane and
Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis and Theodoros I. Platanou
swimming efforts with 10 s recovery in-between. Plastic landmarks were put at -1 m, 0 m, 20 m and 21 m to set the distance (a start and a finish line). After a whistleblow, players started swimming as fast as possible from -1 m to 21 m. Timing commenced when the participant’s head left the 0 m landmark (the start line) and stopped when the head passed through the 20 m landmark (the finish line). For accurate timing of each sprint and for all players, the sprints were recorded by two digital cameras at 50 Hz (Sony Digital, DCR-PC5E, Japan). Sprint time was later