Leszek Tymczyna, Beata Trawińska, Marta Kowaleczko, Anna Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska and Jerzy Lechowski
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Pavel Horký, Jiri Skladanka, Pavel Nevrkla and Petr Slama
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Monika Małodobry, Monika Bieniasz and Ewa Dziedzic
The experiment was carried out in the Garlica Murowana Experimental Station of University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland, between 2005 and 2008. Fruit yield, mass of 100 berries, content of total soluble solids, vitamin C, anthocyanins and titratable acidity were estimated. It was shown that ‘Atut’ honeysuckle started vegetation, flowering and cropping periods earlier than ‘Duet’. However, greater marketable yield and mass of 100 berries were obtained for ‘Duet’. ‘Atut’ fruit revealed a significantly higher content of anthocyanins. The studied honeysuckle cultivars did not differ if estimated on the basis of total soluble solids and vitamin C content in the fruit.
Response of Chinese cabbage grown in the spring season to differentiated forms of nitrogen fertilisation
In the experiment carried out in the Experimental Station belonging to the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences in 2004-2006, we estimated the effect of the type of the nitrogen fertiliser (ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea and ENTEC 26) applied as preplant (150 kg N ha-1) or split dose (100 + 50 kg N ha-1) on the yield and dry matter content, nitrates, vitamin C and P, K, Mg, Ca in ‘Optiko’ Chinese cabbage cultivated during the spring season. The highest total and marketable yield of Chinese cabbage was recorded after the use of urea, which was partly associated with the lowest percentage of diseased heads. Plants fertilised with ammonium sulfate provided the lowest yield. The method of nitrogen application significantly affected the yield and the mean weight of individual heads in the marketable yield, but not the accumulation of nitrates and vitamin C. The lowest accumulation of nitrates was associated with the use of ammonium sulfate and ENTEC 26, whereas the highest with urea. The use of calcium nitrate at a single dose of 150 kg N ha-1 led to the highest accumulation of vitamin C in Chinese cabbage leaves. The levels of P, K, Mg and Ca showed only small changes and were not significantly affected by the type of nitrogen fertiliser or the method of its application.
The study evaluated some agro-morphological (fruit weight, fruit flesh ratio, fruit skin colour, number of fruits per raceme, number of racemes per bush), biochemical (vitamin C, soluble solids content, organic acids), and bioactive (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity) characteristics of the fruit of a number of selected European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L.) genotypes grown in the Sivas province of Turkey. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were performed. The results showed genotype-specific differences in most of the agro-morphological, biochemical and bioactive characteristics. The range of fruit weight, number of fruits per raceme, and number of racemes per bush was between 0.67 and 0.82 g, 40.7 and 57.1, and 470 and 581, respectively. The highest vitamin C and soluble solids contents were found in the fruits of genotypes SIV-9 and SIV-6 as 39 mg per 100 g and 12.6%, respectively. Tartaric acid was the main organic acid in all the genotypes; it ranged from 120 to 144 mg per 100 g of fruit FW. Total phenolic, total anthocyanin and total flavonoid contents ranged from 621 to 987 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g, 15 to 51 mg cyanidin-3-rutinoside equivalents per 100 g, and 202 to 318 mg rutin equivalents per 100 g, respectively. Genotype SIV-10 had the highest antioxidant capacity (34.90 μmol Trolox per g, based on FRAP assays). The present study shows the potential of the evaluated European Cranberrybush genotypes for improving the nutritional value through germplasm enhancement programmes.
Pot experiments conducted in a growth chamber studied the effectiveness of foliar fertilization of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) with macro- and microelements in the form of a 1% water solution of Insol U fertilizer applied with fluorescent light of the PAR intensity of 200 μmol m-2 s-1 and with dispersed daylight of the intensity of 600 μmol m-2 s-1. Insol U was applied three times, supplied on the upper, lower or both sides of the leaf blades. The control consisted of plants sprayed with distilled water. The obtained results pointed out that foliar fertilization of spinach with Insol U significantly increased the leaf gas exchange, the yield of the fresh leaf mass, the content of vitamin C, chlorophyll, carotenoids, as well as potassium and phosphorus in the leaves. The application of the fertilizer onto the upper and the lower side of the leaf blade had the most positive effect on the analysed property of the leaves. Independently of the side leaf, the application of the fertilizer at a higher light intensity had a significantly better consecutive effect on all the analysed properties of the leaves.
A pot experiment conducted in a growth chamber studied the effectiveness of foliar fertilization of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), with different forms of nitrogen applied with the air temperatures: 5°C, 15°C and 25°C. Nitrogen was supplied three times in the form of 1% water solutions of CO(NH2)2, NH4NO3, NH4HCO3 and Ca(NO3)2 × 4 H2O, with water as the control. The obtained results showed that nitrogen in the form of Ca(NO3)2 × 4 H2O - independent of the air temperature during solution application - is the least useful in foliar fertilization of spinach leaves, whereas the effectiveness of the other forms was similar, although the best effects were given by NH4NO3. Application of all forms of nitrogen at the air temperature of 25°C had the most positive effect on the course of gas exchange (stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis, transpiration). Despite that, the highest leaf yield with the highest content of nitrogen, total chlorophyll (a + b), carotenoids and vitamin C, and the lowest content of nitrates, was given by plants with foliar application of all nitrogen forms at the temperature of 15°C.