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Prevalence of virulence markers and pHS-2-like plasmids among Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri isolates originating from shigellosis cases in Romania

: serodiversity, virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014 Jul 14;8(7):904-8. DOI: 10.3855/jidc.3692 23. Roy S, Thanasekaran K, Dutta Roy AR, Sehgal SC. Distribution of Shigella enterotoxin genes and secreted autotransporter toxin gene among diverse species and serotypes of shigella isolated from Andaman Islands, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Nov;11(11):1694-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01723.x 24. Al-Hasani K, Rajakumar K, Bulach D, Robins-Browne R, Adler B, Sakellaris H. Genetic organization of the she pathogenicity island in

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The frequency of shiga-like toxin (stx1 and stx2) and EHEC-hlyA in food by multiplex PCR

enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in raw yak (Poephagus grunniens) milk and milk products. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93(2):604-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.12.011 13. Russo LM, Melton-Celsa AR, Smith MJ, O’Brien AD. Comparisons of native Shiga toxins (Stxs) type 1 and 2 with chimeric toxins indicate that the source of the binding subunit dictates degree of toxicity. PLoS One 2014;9:e93463. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093463 14. Bai J, Shi X, Nagaraja TG. A multiplex PCR procedure for the detection of six major virulence genes in Escherichia coli O

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xTAG Luminex multiplex assay for rapid screening of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains


The O26 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC)-associated outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in Romania during 2016 showed the need to improve the current methodology of non-O157 VTEC detection and surveillance. An in-house assay based on xTAG Luminex technology was optimized to identify seven of the most relevant diarrheagenic E.coli serogroups (O-specific wzx genes), two convenient VTEC virulence markers (eaeA and ehxA genes), and a species-specific control gene (uidA). Twenty-nine strains previously characterized in terms of serogroup and virulence genes were tested with the optimized protocol and the results were as expected. The ratio of sample signal to background varied from 66.7 (ehxA) to 7.6 (uidA) for positive samples, with a cut-off of 3. Sensitivity varied depending on the target to be amplified from approximately 102 genomic copies to approximately 104 genomic copies per reaction, respectively. The current approach seems an affordable alternative to commercially available assays that can be further exploited to improve existing autochthonous strategies to prevent future VTEC outbreaks.

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Comparison of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with and without cystic fibrosis

.3390/pathogens3030680 17. Amitani R, Wilson R, Rutman A, Read R, Ward C, Burnett D, et al. Effects of Human Neutrophil Elastase and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteinases on Human Respiratory Epithelium. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1991 Jan;4(1):26-32. DOI: 10.1165/ajrcmb/4.1.26 18. Faraji F, Mahzounieh M, Ebrahimi A, Fallah F, Teymournejad O, Lajevardi B. Molecular detection of virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from children with Cystic Fibrosis and burn wounds in Iran. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2016 Oct;99:1-4. DOI: 10.1016/j

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