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. Dong, J-Z: Simultaneous determination of 1,3-buta-diene, ethylene oxide, vinyl chloride, propylene oxide, acrylonitrile, benzene and isoprene in mainstream vapour phase cigarette smoke; Tobacco Science Research Conference, (2008), Nashville, 21-24 September Paper 42. 7. Health Canada: Determination of 1,3-butadiene, iso-prene, acrylonitrile, benzene and toluene in mainstream tobacco smoke; Health Canada method T-116 Decem-ber 1999; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/legislation/reg/indust/method/_main-principal/isopren-eng.php (Accessed August 2009). 8

constituents in the Kentucky reference 2R4F cigarette; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 21 (2005) 273–279. 13. Ye, Q.: Development of solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of volatile organic chemicals in mainstream cigarette smoke; J. Chromatogr. A. 1213 (2008) 239–244. 14. Hoffmann, D., C. Patrianakos, K. D. Brunnemann, and G. B. Gori: Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. XXXVI. Chromatographic determination of vinyl chloride in tobacco smoke; Anal. Chem., 48 (1976) 47–50. 15. Moldoveanu, S., W. M. Coleman III, and J. Wilkins

associated volatile compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke; Analyst 123 (1998) 1095-1101. 11. Byrd, G.D., K.W. Fowler, R.D. Hicks, M.E. Lovette, and M.F. Borgerding: Isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the determination of benzene, toluene, styrene and acrylonitrile in mainstream cigarette smoke; J. Chromatogr. 503 (1990) 359-368. 12. White, E.L., A. Sequeria, and CO. Brooks: Ultra-sensitive method for the direct determination of vinyl chloride in fresh mainstream vapour-phase cigarette smoke; 51st Tobacco Scientists’ Research Conference, Program

Acrylonitrile 3 - 15 µg Vinyl chloride (VC) 11 - 15 ng Ethylene oxide (EO) 7 µg Ethyl carbamate 20 - 38 ng 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine Present Maleic hydrazide (MH) 1.16 µg Methyl isocyanate 1.5 - 5 µg 2-Nitropropane 0.2 - 2.2 µg Nitrobenzene 25 µg Phenol 80 - 160 µg Catechol 200 - 400 µg Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 20 µg 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) 800 - 1.200 ng 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) 200 - 370 ng Inorganic Compounds Carbon monoxide (CO) 10 - 23 mg Carbon disulfide 0.6 - 2.6 µg Ammonia 10 - 130 µg Nitrogen oxides² (NOx) 100 - 600

.A. Lyerly and G.W. Young: Direct vapor chromatographic determination of acetalde-hyde, acrolein and acetone in cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 8 (1964) 150-153. 6. E.L. White, A. Sequeria and CO. Brooks: Ultra-sensitive method for the direct determination of vinyl chloride in fresh mainstream vapor-phase cigarette smoke; 51 ffl Tobacco Science Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 51, No. 50, 1997, p 55. 7. CC Morrison, D.E. Wingate and K.A. Beard: The effects of cigarette design modifications on selected mainstream vapor phase smoke constituent yield; 49

tested for carcinogenic activity; USPHS Publ. No. 149, Washington D.C., 1968/1969; 1970/1971. 185. IARC: Acrylonitrile; IARC, Lyon, France, IARC Monograph 19 (1979) 73-113. 186. IARC: Vinyl chloride; IARC, Lyon, France, IARC Monograph 19 (1979) 377-438. 187. Schepartz, A.I.: The chemistry of cigar smoke. II. Some components of the neutral fraction; Tob. Sci. 4 (1960) 12-16. 188. Dymicky, M., O.T. Chortyk, and R.L. Stedman: Composition studies on tobacco. XXVII. Polyphenol-amino acid leaf pigment: Further structural investigations; Tob. Sci . 11 (1967) 42–44; Dymicky

subfractions of the weakly acidic fraction; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 55 (1975) 1329–1336. 132. Hoffmann, D., K. D. Brunnemann, G. B. Gori, and E. L. Wynder: On the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke; Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 9 (1975) 63–81. 133. Hoffmann, D., S. S. Hecht, I. Schmeltz, K. D. Brunnemann, and E. L. Wynder: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke. XLIV. New separation techniques for classes of smoke compounds; Rec. Adv. Tobacco Sci. 1 (1975) 97–122. 134. Hoffmann, D., C. P. Patrianakos, K. D. Brunnemann and G. B. Gori: On the Analysis of Vinyl Chloride in Tobacco Smoke

, B.M. and W.M. Coleman III: Determination of Vinyl Chloride, Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide in Fresh Mainstream Smoke via Gas Chroma-tography/Mass Spectrometry; Presentation at the 57 th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Norfolk, VA, Sept. 2003, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Paper 63, P. 58. 405. Diekmann, J., M. Douda, and K. Rustemeier: Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Determination of Propylene Oxide in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; J. Chroma-togr. Sci. 44 (2006) 32–34. 406. Gaworski, C.L., M.J. Oldham, and C